Thursday

Climate Interactive Map - Roll Over to navigate ...

Climate Interactive Map - Roll Over to navigate ... 
 Climate Interactive Map - Roll Over to navigate ...

climate change will change our life on earth, the world climate change will ...

climate change will change our life on earth, the world climate change will ... 
climate change will change our life on earth, the world climate change will ...

Climate change is recognised as a serious and cross cutting issue and the UK ...

Climate change is recognised as a serious and cross cutting issue and the UK ...
Climate change is recognised as a serious and cross cutting issue and the UK ...

Climate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Climate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Climate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World Climate Zones. Have you ever wondered why one area of the world is a ...

World Climate Zones. Have you ever wondered why one area of the world is a ... 
World Climate Zones. Have you ever wondered why one area of the world is a ...

Climate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Climate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 
Climate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Monday

Axuria -- Restaurant Review


54, Avenue Félix FAURE, 
75015, Paris
Tél : 01 45 54 13 91
Webiste:  "Axuria"
Hours: 7 jours sur 7 de 12h à 14h30
et de 19h à 23h

Rating Standards: 5-Stars = Extraordinary; 4-Stars = Excellent; 3-Stars = Average; 2-Stars = Fair; 1-Star = Poor
€ = Inexpensive: 30€ and under; €€ = Moderate: 31€-49€; €€€ = Expensive: €50 -75; $$$$ = Very Expensive: more than €76 (prices based on plats--main course)

1-Bell = Pleasantly quiet (less than 65 decibels); 2-Bells = Can talk easily (65-70); 3-Bells = Talking normally gets difficult (70-75); 4-Bells = Can talk only in raised voices (75-80); BOMB = Too noisy for normal conversation (80+)


  4 - Star......................................................................................................................2 - Bell



Axuria, which means milk fed lamb, is a restaurant not too far from where we live. A friend called last minute and asked if could join her for dinner. Never one to turn down a dinner invitation we said, "bien sûr" (of course). We had heard of the restaurant and we were able to make reservations on the same day.  I was surprised, but then I remembered it was election night, and also a Sunday, so not a typical dining evening.



We got to the restaurant, and the waiter/maitre’d answered the door and greeted us very warmly. Our friend was already at the table. We had a very nice table along the window, and the restaurant was maybe a third full. It has a very nice interior, nicely laid out with a very cooling blue color palate.




Almost immediately we got an amuse bouche of chorizo sausages and puff pastry cheese sticks.  I was surprised the chorizo had very little kick to it, and the cheese sticks were nothing special.







We were going to get apéros, but had decided just to get a half a bottle each of the Isabelle et Pierre Clément Châtenoy red and white.  We loved the wines, since I’m not a wine connoisseur all I can tell you was that the white was a tad dry, but not as dry as a sancerre, loved it. And, my companions thought the red wine dry and robust, it was a hit as well. 







Much to our surprise and delight, we got another amuse bouche, this time it was  a little creamy soup of leeks, celery and green onions, with a sprinkling of a little olive oil. We loved this dish. Rather than be dainty, I drank it and practically licked the bowl. I could’ve had that as a main course for sure.







Entrées:

Our friend ordered the “Ravioli de truffes noires court-bouillon et sa crème parfumée” (Ravioli of black truffle broth and flavored cream).  Just a little aside, our friend is Italian, so she knows ravioli. She raved that it was delicious, especially the sauce. Not wanting to dig into the ravioli, I asked if I could sop up some of sauce with my bread. It was delicious. Extremely tasty, or as they say in French, “Beaucoup de goût” lots of flavor.



 
“Coeur de scarole braisée farcie aux huitres fines de claires marennes d'Oléron cuit en cocotte, laqué” (Escarole stuffed with oysters fine clear Marennes d’Oléron broth).  This was a stuffed escarole with oysters. This dish was delicious. I wasn’t as polite and asked my companion if I could taste it.  Yum, yum. This dish wasn’t as creamy as the ravioli, but was not a shy dish, you could taste the oysters, and the accompanying broth was delightful.  It had a punch of flavors.


I ordered the “Pâte artisinale aux queues de langoustines, consummé d'épices et feuille de citron kaffir” (A dough stuffed with langoustines, broth of spices and kaffir lime leaf). This was probably the most refined of all the entrées we had. Basically, it was akin to a wonton stuffed with langostines. Normally kaffir leafs are used in Southeast Asian curries, but in this dish the citrusy element was quite mild and not overwhelming. It was a good, solid dish, again very refined.


Plats:

Our Italian friend ordered the Parmentier de cochon Iberique braisé, sarriette (Braised Iberian savory pork pie). I’m not a big fan of “parmentier” which is akin to a sheppards pie, oftentimes it’s folded into the mashed potatoes, in this case it was all meat and then a layer of potatoes on top. I thought the pulled pork was a bit stringy, our friend thought it was OK, but I would definitely not order something that is typically made in a French home. It was not a complicated nor a sophisticated dish.





Cabillaud with a foam cream and variety of vegetables. The dish was flavorful, and my companion enjoyed that the dish was accompanied with various vegetables which is a rarity in most French restaurants, unless you’re ordering a salad as a plat, and contrary to popular belief, French fries don’t count.







I had the “Braisée traver de Porc” (braised pork ribs).  These spare ribs are nothing like the typical spare ribs you get in US. They were slowly braised in a rich wine sauce and the meat literally fell off the bone. I loved the dish because it was rich in flavor.  Surprisingly, it was served with a side of haricot vert, carrots, squash,some potatoes and mushrooms. That was quite a nice accompaniment.



Desserts:




Our Italian friend ordered “Craquant de 3 sorbets maison, colis de framboises” (3 crisp sorbets, raspberry parcels), this was basically a trio of sorbets that consisted of raspberry, mango, and lemon accompanied with some sugar crispy wafers. Our friend said it was quite refreshing after a heavy meal.










Originally my companion ordered the “Petit feuilleté chaud de pommes, crème glacée à la vanilla.” Our waiter got it confused, and brought out the “Assiette de fruits frais de saison simplement minute” (Assorted fresh seasonal fruit ). He was about to return it until he saw the plate of fruit and incredible variety, it was too appetizing to return.  He liked the fruit and thought it was very fresh. It also had a dollop of mango sorbet




I ordered “Assiette de fromage” (plate of cheese). I have to say, I had quite the variety of cheese. Normally, you get 2 or 3 types of cheese to sample, but this particular dish had 5-cheeses, a nice salad tossed in a mild creamy vinaigrette, accompanied with walnuts and dried apricot. Whoever their cheese vendor is, s/he is a keeper.







After desserts, when we thought all was said and done, much to our surprise and delight, they served us a plate of madeleines as well as little chocolate fudge.  At this point, I’m thinking I'm liking this restaurant a lot!





Click here for video of "Axuria"

Summary: Although it's namesake is Axuria (milk fed lamb), I think there was maybe one lamb dish on the menu. Regardless, this restaurant is a winner. Chef Olivier Amostoy is one of the best Chefs in Paris.  Our favorite dish was the amuse bouche soup.  The only dish we weren’t that excited about was the parmentier, but other than that, everything was a winner. I really don’t want to share this restaurant, since it’s a neighborhood restaurant that I want to start frequenting, but I’m all about sharing.  Auxria is a hidden gem, so go before it becomes too popular.

Total bill came to 137€ for 3-people

Saturday

Délice de Shandong -- Restaurant Review



88, Boulevard de l'Hôpital
75013 Paris
Tél : 01-45-87-23-37
 

www.deliceshandong.com
Hours: Le restaurant est ouvert tous les jours sauf mercredi. 
Les horaires d’ouverture sont de 12h00 à 15h00 à midi et de 18h30 à 23h00 le soir.

Rating Standards: 5-Stars = Extraordinary; 4-Stars = Excellent; 3-Stars = Average; 2-Stars = Fair; 1-Star = Poor
€ = Inexpensive: 30€ and under; €€ = Moderate: 31€-49€; €€€ = Expensive: €50 -75; $$$$ = Very Expensive: more than €76 (prices based on plats--main course)

1-Bell = Pleasantly quiet (less than 65 decibels); 2-Bells = Can talk easily (65-70); 3-Bells = Talking normally gets difficult (70-75); 4-Bells = Can talk only in raised voices (75-80); BOMB = Too noisy for normal conversation (80+)


  4 - Star......................................................................................................................2 - Bell



Typically we go for Asian food for lunch with friends on the week-ends (comme d'habitude), and usually around Avenue de Choisy in the heart of the 13eme arrondissement, Chinatown.  Today for lunch we decided to do something different and head over to the other side of the 13eme, along the boulevard de l’Hôpital.  We selected “Délice de Shandong”.  Shandong, being a Northeast province of China, and is known for its vinegars, grains, peanuts, seafood, and they favor steamed breads vs rice as their starch of choice. 

We were 5-people. A couple from NYC, and one in particular very well versed on Western cuisine as well as Asian/Chinese cuisine, a “foodie” in other words.  Myself, JJ, and my best friend who is from San Diego, and although he does not claim to be a “foodie” he has a fairly good palate.

We ordered several dishes and they came at varying times as in most Chinese restaurants. So here’s what we ordered:

We ordered the “Soupe avec le goût pimenté et aigre” (Hot spicy sour soup). Great consistency, tasty, but we all agreed it was lacking something. So, we asked for some soy sauce and vinegar, keep in mind Shandongregion of China is well known for their vinegar. I just added vinegar to mine, since I found the salt balance just fine. What a difference it made. It tasted like what “hot and sour soup” is suppose to taste like.


Ravioli au porc et chou (potstickers). They were a little bit on the doughy side, and one companion was expecting it to be a little pan fried so the bottom would be crunchy and the top steam sort of like gyoza (Japanese version), but it was all steamed. Regardless, I thought they were good.


“Intestins de porc aromatisé” (flavored pork intestines). This was probably our favorite dish. It’s a spicy dish accompanied by sweet banana chilis, with a nice layer of hot chili oils. Pork intestines can have a funky odor and taste, but the Chef did a great job of ensuring they were cleaned properly We devoured this dish like no tomorrow. It isn’t for everyone, in fact, my best friend would not eat the intestines, but he did eat the banana peppers. And, it is a very spicy dish!



Porc fumé sautés pimenté (Spicy smoked pork sautéed).  This was our second most favorite dish. It was spicy, smoky, and was "chowed" with leeks and tofu, with the latter having the consistency of tempeh. The pork was pork belly, now how can you go wrong with that. 


We had one vegetarian dish. “Aubergines à la sauce piquante” (Eggplant with a spicy sauce).  Eggplant has a tendency to absorb a lot of oils, but there’s a difference between being greasy and oily, and this dish did have chili oils as a flavoring agent, which gave it a little heat, it was delicious. We loved it. I think there’s a trend here that we’re liking the really spicy dishes. 


Lastly, at the request of one of friends who doesn’t really eat spicy, we ordered two dishes: the “Poulet aux ciboulettes à la vapeur” (Steamed chicken with chives), and Boeuf sauté aux oignons (Beef sautéed with onions).




Poulet aux ciboulettes à la vapeur.  This was a very mild and delicate dish. Surprisingly, the chicken was very, very tender and moist; probably due to the steaming and the fact that they didn’t over steam it. The added chives gave it another delicate layer. We liked it, but were not wowed by it.






Boeuf sauté aux oignons.  Except for one person, this was the dish that we all unanimously agreed was “boring”. I don’t know how else to describe it except it was dull and not very imaginative. It’s something you could get at the Chinese “traiteur” in Paris.








It looks like this group really liked the spicy dishes. I’ve noticed in France that a lot of restaurants that would typically be “spicy” in their native countries "Frenchify" their food and tone it down. This restaurant stays true to its roots. The dishes that were suppose to be spicy, were.

All of us liked the food; however, my best friend preferred the Chinese food around the Ave de Choisy.

Summary:  This is the next best thing to be being in China, San Francisco, or NYC. Unfortunately, we had ordered so many dishes that we neglected some other dishes that are known for this region, such as the seafood, steamed breads and peanuts...  Oh well, there’s always another day. And, we’ll be sure to go back!

For 5-people including 2-beers, 2-sodas, and a big bottle of Badoit (sparkling water), our bill came to 18 euros each.

Friday

Webcast: Getting to Outcomes in Underage Drinking Prevention

On May 21, from 10-11:30 a.m., the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) will host Getting to Outcomes in Underage Drinking Prevention, a live, interactive webcast.  The webcast will highlight communities that are using Town Hall Meetings to engage individuals and organization in achieving measurable outcomes through the use of evidence-based environmental prevention strategies.  A panel of national, State, and local activists will discuss approaches that are working to prevent and reduce underage alcohol use and its consequences and will respond to questions and comments from online participants.  The webcast supports SAMHSA's National Prevention Week and, specifically, Underage Drinking Prevention Day on May 21.  


Details on how to log in or pose questions to the panel will be posted on May 21. No registration is required.

Thursday

Overview of youth substance abuse problem and possible solutions

A commentary published in the May 2012 edition of the Journal of Adolescent Health provides a good overview of the adolescent substance abuse problem.  Some things I learned from the article are:

  • Among adolescents who use addictive substances, 65% use more than one drug.  
  • Among adolescents who have ever used tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs, 19% meet the clinical criteria for having a substance use disorder as do 33% of current users.
  • Only 6% of high school students who have a substance use disorder receive formal treatment.  Fewer teens who need treatment receive it compared with other age groups.
"Moreover, addictive substances have a greater negative impact on the adolescent brain than the adult brain, increasing the risk of further use, adversely influencing the development of the regions of the brain associated with judgment, attention, memory and reward seeking, and increasing the risk of addiction."  

The article goes on to outline influences that drive adolescent substance abuse such as parents, the media, availability and individual challenges.  It closes by stating, "Despite a significant body of scientific evidence demonstrating these facts, this knowledge [about adolescent substance abuse] has not been translated broadly into public health and medical practice."  

This is where coalitions can begin to create change.  Since coalitions are composed of individuals representing different sectors of a community, information about adolescent substance abuse and how we can prevent it can be widely shared.  Coalition members can play a significant role in educating others in the community.  

Prevention part of the National Drug Control Strategy

I recently posted information from the 2012 National Drug Control Strategy.  The strategy highlights the importance of youth substance abuse prevention:

Drug use, including the abuse of prescription medications and underage drinking, significantly affects the health and well-being of the Nation's youth and young adults.  Substance use affects academic performance and military preparedness and is linked to crime, motor vehicle crashes and fatalities, lost productivity, and increase health care costs.  Stopping use before it begins can increase an individual's chances of living a longer, healthier, and more productive life.  Put simply, drug prevention saves lives and cuts long-term costs.  Recent research has shown that each dollar invested in an evidence-based prevention program can reduce costs related to substance use disorders by an average of $18.  

The strategy goes on to describe the many community-level prevention activities that are supported by federal dollars.  Among them are Drug Free Communities (DFC) coalitions, such as Prevention WINS.  A national evaluation of the 718 DFC coalitions found that youth substance use declined significantly in communities with DFC grantees.

In NE Seattle, served by the Prevention WINS coalition, underage drinking rates declined significantly between 2006 -- when the coalition was formed -- and 2010.  During that time, the coalition's primary focus was the reduction of underage drinking rates that were higher than the state average.  Many community organizations and individuals came together and conducted a variety of prevention strategies and activities that supported healthy decision making among middle and high school students.

The chart below shows the 2006 and 2010 alcohol-related data for 10th grade students in NE Seattle -- Nathan Hale and Roosevelt High School combined -- according to the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey.  




Wednesday

Semilla -- Restaurant Review

Unmarked restaurant, hopefully they'll get a sign soon

Address: 54 rue de Seine, 75006
Nearest transport: Mabillon (10)
Hours: 
Est ouvert tous les jours: du lundi au samedi: 12:30-14:30 déjeuner, 14:30-19h diner et brunch. Dimanche: brunch de 12h30 à 16h puis supper à partir de 19h "pièce du boucher"justqu'`a 22h
Reservations: recommended
Telephone: 01 43 54 34 50

Rating Standards: 5-Stars = Extraordinary; 4-Stars = Excellent; 3-Stars = Average; 2-Stars = Fair; 1-Star = Poor
€ = Inexpensive: 30€ and under; €€ = Moderate: 31€-49€; €€€ = Expensive: €50 -75; $$$$ = Very Expensive: more than €76 (prices based on plats--main course)

1-Bell = Pleasantly quiet (less than 65 decibels); 2-Bells = Can talk easily (65-70); 3-Bells = Talking normally gets difficult (70-75); 4-Bells = Can talk only in raised voices (75-80); BOMB = Too noisy for normal conversation (80+)


  3.5 - Star.................................................. (Prix-fixe menu)...............................................2 - Bell


Typically every month we meet up with a good friend to explore or retry a new restaurants. So, on May 1,  we decided to try Semilla.  Semilla has only been open for a month, and is the new restaurant venture of Miami born Juan Sanchez and New Zealander Drew Harre.  I've been to their restaurant Fish La Boissonnerie and liked it immensely and was extremely excited to try this new restaurant close to their restaurant  Fish La Boissonnerie.

Interior of restaurant

The restaurant is not marked. We took a guess and figured that the unmarked restaurant had to be Semilla; fortunately, we were right.  It's a quite spacious restaurant. It almost felt like you were in a loft because of all the exposed piping and air-conditioning vent. I liked it, it had a lot of character.



Water dispensing machine





We were hoping to be able to eat earlier, so we met at noon.  We were the first one in the restaurant.  We asked if we could have a menu. The maitre'd said, "absolutely not, we would have to wait until 12:30" exactly, no less, no more. All part of the rigid french experience (but in fairness, the menus are printed each day and were only brought to the restaurant at 12:30).  So, while we waited they asked if we wanted water, flat or with gas. They had their own dispenser that makes sparkling water free of charge, so we opted for that, very green.



Chef's in the open kitchen

 
The Kitchen is quite open and exposed. I love that you can see them preparing the food and checking to see that they're not using pre-packaged food "a la Metro" (a sort of Costco of prepared foods for restaurants). Fortunately, we did not see any.


Chef's Luncheon






As we waited, we saw at least 10-young chefs preparing their lunch. In France, the Chefs prepare and eat their lunch before opening the restaurant to the public.  I was amazed how fast they ate, maybe 15-minutes tops.






Finally 12:30 pm arrived. We got our menu which was freshly printed on a sheet of paper. What struck me first and foremost was the price, 19 euros for the formule lunch which consisted of an entrée (the 1 and only 1 entrée contained 3 items, so no choice, an interesting concept), and a plat. Desserts were extra at 8 euros, so for all 3-courses 27 euros, with cheese there is a supplementary cost of 2 euros extra. Not bad.

Within 15-minutes the restaurant quickly started packing in. It was a holiday (May 1), but people were coming. And, what I found even more interesting, was the number of couples who brought babies in their strollers.

First course "L'assiette de trois entrees:" which consisted of a velouté champignons crème (mushroom soup), muffin chataîgne (chestnut muffin), and a "queue de veau vinaigrette" (veal tail). I liked the entrées in this order: (1) the soup was creamy, tasty and delicious, (2) the muffin was moist and light, you could tell it was made with a lot of egg whites to give it a nice soft texture as well as the moistness. One friend commented it was a bit on the salty side, but I loved it. And, (3) the veau, which we all commented that it tasted like tuna. It was like a deconstructed meat, egg-salad with a "citrusy" side.  So, with the first course we were off to a good start.

Then we got our plats: They had 3 choices offered, and so the 3 of us each chose a different one.  One got the Maigre, fondue de blette, champignon de Paris, buerre noisette. A fish. The presentation was very, very odd. It was literally covered in greens. If you didn't know any better, it looked like a green salad. Remember the commercial, "where's the beef?"my first question was, "where's the fish?. We finally found the fish, at the bottom of the forest. Despite the weird presentation, we all tasted this dish, and it was very moist and delicious.



Next we had the Involtini aubergines, chèvres frais, basilic. The only "lacto-vegetarian" dish on the menu. It was good. The eggplant had a nice taste and the chèvre wasn't overwhelming. I liked it, but my friend thought it was just average, saved only by the wilted basil it was resting on.



I had the Pintade, crème de cèleri, jus de rôti (guinea fowl). There were two pieces of fowl.  One  like a pale chicken breast, while the other looked like a guinea fowl leg that was definitely confit'd.  The breast was either steamed or sous vide. It was extremely moist, but absolutely tasteless. As for the confit'd leg, I was expecting that it would at least have a little more flavor, but it too was bland. I mixed some of the greens (Italian flat parsley and dill) and put a piece on each bite, it made a world of difference. It gave it some depth.   We all agreed, although this dish was cooked well, it lacked flavor.

Onto the desserts. Two of us had the Crèmeux guanaja, confit de kumquat, streuzel. At first I thought guanaja was some type of fruit, but turns out it's an island off Honduras that lends its name to a special blend of chocolate. This was very chocolaty and creamy with chocolate streuzel sprinkled on top, on a bed of a soft syrup-soaked cake with dashes of salt. I loved this dessert, I thought it was excellent, whereas one of us commented it was just OK.









The other dessert was the Soupe d'agrumes, glace Pamplemouse which was like a simple fresh fruit cocktail with only citrus (mostly grapefruit) which my citrus loving friend enjoyed.







We had an opportunity to speak to one of the owners Drew Harre. He told us parts of the menu changes daily, and the whole menu changes weekly. Admittedly, they're still tweaking the menu and he considers the restaurant a "work in progress." We had some friends that had gone the week prior and had the blanket de veau and said it was excellent. But unfortunately, they did not have it on the menu.

In summary, It's amazing that the restaurant has only been open for a month. They had some very strong dishes as well as some dishes that could use a little work.  While it's true they still have some tweaking, as Drew states, it's  a work in progress, I'm confident they'll come up with a winning formula "à tout de suite". I would definitely go back.


For the 3 of we paid 123€ with 2-glasses of sancere and a bottle of
Gueule de Loup.

Tuesday

Seattle Police collect 697 pounds of unwanted medications


Saturday was National Drug Take Back Day and people dropped off expired, unwanted or unused prescription medications at the five Seattle Police Department precincts.  According to Seattle Police, a total of 697.15 pounds of unwanted medications were dropped off.  Here is the precinct break-down:

-- North Precinct-176.50 pounds
-- West Precinct-170.70 pounds
-- South Precinct-43.55 pounds
-- East Precinct-67.95 pounds
-- Southwest Precinct-238.45 pounds

Since Washington State does not have a statewide medicine return program, it is often difficult for people to get rid of unused medications in an environmentally safe way.  With youth prescription drug abuse on the rise in Washington State, getting rid of unused medicines is one prevention tool for families.

Saturday's event was was another great success and there will be another one again in the fall.  In the meantime, learn more about establishing a permanent statewide medicine return program at the Take Back Your Meds website.

Monday

Liquor Control Board still seeking comments about extending alcohol service hours


In August 2011, the City of Seattle petitioned the Liquor Control Board to consider allowing jurisdictions to extend alcohol service hours beyond 2:00 a.m.  (See posts from April 3, March 14 and November 15.)  The Liquor Control Board hosted hearings around the state and received evenly split testimony with about 50% testifying in favor of extended hours and about 50% testifying against extended hours.  The Liquor Control Board was to make a decision within the next two weeks but has postponed their decision until May 30.

From a prevention standpoint, the federal Community Prevention Services Task Force recommends against extending hours of alcohol sales/service.

In 2003, Vancouver, BC allowed bars in their Granville district to extend closing hours to 3:00 a.m. and, according to a 2007 report by the City and Police Department, between 2002 and 2006:

- The number of police calls between midnight and 6 am increased from 2,000 to over 3,500
- The number of fights doubled from around 140 to almost 300
- The number of disturbance and annoyance calls increased from approximately 310 to 410
- The number of requests for assistance to dispatch doubled from 80 to 160
- The number of stabbings and assaults in progress went from 40 to 100

The Liquor Control Board is still accepting public comments about the City of Seattle's petition.  Comments may be submitted to Liquor Control Board’s Rules Coordinator.  

Friday

philosophy

Google Search for Articles renowned interpreter of tradition 'Empiricism translator', a branch of philosophy of language from the knowledge that only knowledge verified Created experience is valid, and 'Philosophy of Scotland', sometimes referred to as the 'Scottish School of Common Sense' Paragraph Filsuf paled famous Dari translator empiricism is John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume;. Corrected Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid and William Hamilton is a language From the main exponent of the Scottish Schools 'common sense'. Two well-known translator Residents BECAUSE utilitarian theory of moral philosophy, Date time value used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism short work . Other prominent Filsuf language interpreter, and the union of the States and the preceding including Duns Scotus, John Lilburne, Mary Wollstonecraft, Sir Francis Bacon, Adam Smith, Thomas Hobbes, William Ockham Dari, Bertrand Russell and AJ "Freddie" Ayer . The foreign-born living in the translator Filsuf including Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx, Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein

Symbol

British flag is the Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack). It was first coined in 1606 by the superimposition of the British flag on the flag of Scotland, and updated in 1801 with the addition of Flag of Saint Patrick. Wales is not represented in the Union flag as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom;. Possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out of the British national song is "God Save the King", the "King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics every time the monarchy was a woman.

Britannia is a personification of England, who came from Roman Britain. Britannia is symbolized as a young woman with brown or golden hair wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. He holds three branches of Poseidon's trident and shield, which contains the Union Flag. Sometimes he is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. At and since the peak of the British Empire, Britannia is often associated with maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song "Rule, Britannia!". Until 2008, the symbol of the lion depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and on the back of the coin ten pence English. It is also used as a symbol of the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. Bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of England and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.

Sport

Major sports, including football, rugby league, rugby union, rowing, boxing, badminton, cricket, tennis, archery and golf, originated or developed substantially in the UK and the countries that preceded it. A 2003 poll found that football is the most popular sport in the UK. In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are usually field a team representing all Ireland, with the exception of including the Commonwealth Games and the football association. (In the context of sport, this team can be referred to collectively as the Home Nations.), But there are occasions where a single sports team represents the United Kingdom, including at the Olympics where the UK is represented by the England team. London is the site of the 1908 and 1948 Olympics, and in 2012 will be the first city to host a third time.

Each of the United Nations Forum has its own football association system, national teams and leagues, though a few clubs play outside their respective system of their country for a variety of historical and logistical reasons. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland compete as separate countries in international competition and, consequently, the UK does not compete as a team in football events at the Olympic Games . There are proposals to have a British team took part in the 2012 summer Olympics, but the association Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish football has refused to participate, for fear that it would undermine their independent status - fear confirmed by FIFA president Sepp Blatter United Kingdom have be the most successful of the home. won the World Cup on home soil in 1966, although historically close fought competition between England and Scotland.


Cricket has been found in England. The England cricket team, which is controlled by the England and Wales Cricket Board, is the only national team in the UK with Test status. Team members drawn from the main area, and includes both English and Welsh players. Cricket is different from football and rugby pitch where Wales and England national team apart, although Wales has reduced its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because it is not Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and only recently started playing in the One Day International . Scotland, England (and Wales) and Ireland (including Northern Ireland) have competed in the Cricket World Cup, with England reaching the final on three occasions. There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete Rugby league is a popular sport in some parts of England .. It originated in Huddersfield and is generally played in Northern England [431] A single team 'British Lion' has competed in the Rugby League World Cup and play Test matches, but this changed in 2008 when England, Scotland and Ireland compete as separate. countries [432]. Britain is still preserved as a national team for the Ashes tour against Australia, New Zealand and France. The highest form of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe is the Super League where there are 11 teams from Northern England, one from London, one from Wales and one from France. Rugby held separately for England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, each of which has a top-ranked international team and are collectively known as the National Front. Six Nations Championship, played between the United Nations Home as well as Italy and France, is the first international tournament in the northern hemisphere . The Triple Crown granted to the United Nations Home to beat the other three in the tournament.
Wimbledon Championships, Grand Slam tournament, held in Wimbledon, London every June or July

The first game of lawn tennis from the city of Birmingham between 1859 and 1865. The Championships, Wimbledon are international tennis events held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and is considered the most prestigious event in the global tennis calendar. Snooker is one of the export of British popular sport, with world championships held annually in Sheffield. In Northern Ireland's Gaelic football team and the cast is a popular sport, both in terms of participation and spectating, and Irish expatriates throughout the UK and the U.S. also played their Shinty (or camanachd) is popular in the Scottish Highlands ..

Race racing, which originated under Charles II of England as the "king of sports", popular throughout the UK with world-famous races including the Grand National, Epsom Derby, Royal Ascot and the Cheltenham National Hunt Festival (including the Cheltenham Gold Cup). UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. Golf is the sixth most popular sport, with participation, in the UK. Although The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in Scotland is the home of the sport, the world's oldest golf course is actually Musselburgh Old Links Golf Course .

Britain is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One (F1) based in the UK, and British driver has won more world titles than any other country. UK to host first F1 Grand Prix at Silverstone in 1950, the current location of the British Grand Prix is ​​held every year in July. The country also hosts legs of the World Rally Championship and has its own touring car racing championship, the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC).

Media

The BBC, founded in 1922, is publicly funded in British radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates television and radio stations in the UK and overseas and domestic services are funded by television license [410]. [411] Other major players in the British media including ITV plc, which operates 11 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network, and the News Corporation, which has a number of national newspapers such as through international news tabloid The Sun is the most popular and The most long-established daily "newspaper" The Times, and holds a large stake in satellite broadcaster British Sky Broadcasting London dominates the media sector in the UK:. national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, though Manchester is also a significant national media center. Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, is an important center of production of newspapers and broadcasting in Scotland and Wales respectively . UK publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, have a combined turnover of approximately £ 20 billion and employs about 167,000 people .

In 2009 it is estimated that the average individual views 3.75 hours of television per day and 2.81 hours of radio. In the BBC's main public service broadcasting channels are expected to contribute 28.4% of all television viewing;. The three main independent channel accounted for 29.5% and the other satellite and digital channels is increasingly important for the remaining 42.1% Sales of newspapers has been falling since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading daily newspapers nationwide. In 2010, 82.5% of the UK population are internet users, the highest proportion among the 20 countries with the largest number of users in that year.

Cinema

Britain has had a considerable influence on the history of cinema. The British director Alfred Hitchcock and David Lean is the most critically acclaimed of all time, with other important directors including Charlie Chaplin, Michael Powell, Carol Reed and Ridley Scott. Many British actors have achieved international fame and success, including:. Julie Andrews, Richard Burton, Michael Caine, Charlie Chaplin, Sean Connery, Vivien Leigh, David Niven, Laurence Olivier, Peter Sellers and Kate Winslet Some of the most successful films of all time have been commercially produced in the UK, including the two most successful film franchises (Harry Potter and James Bond) Ealing Studios has a claim as the oldest film studio continued to work in the world ..

Despite a history of significant and successful production, the industry is often characterized by the debate about the identity and magnitude of the influence of America and Europe. Many British films co-production with American producers, often using both British and American actors, and British actor featuring regularly in Hollywood films. Many successful Hollywood movies have been based on the UK, the story of people or events, including Titanic, The Lord of the Rings and Pirates of the Caribbean.

In 2009 the British films earned about $ 2 billion worldwide and achieved a market share of about 7% globally and 17% in England [407]. UK box-office revenues of 944 million pounds in 2009, with about 173 million in revenue. British Film Institute has produced a poll ranking of what is considered the 100 greatest British films of all time, BFI Top 100 British films annual British Academy Film Awards, organized by the British Academy Film. and Television Arts, is the British equivalent of the Oscar.

Visual arts

British art history is part of the history of western art. Great artists in the UK include: Romance William Blake, John Constable, JMW Turner and Samuel Palmer, a portrait painter Sir Joshua Reynolds and Lucian Freud; landscape artist Thomas Gainsborough and LS Lowry; pioneer of Arts and Crafts Movement William Morris; figurative painter Francis Bacon; the Pop artist Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton and David Hockney; collaborative duo Gilbert and George; abstract artist Howard Hodgkin, Antony Gormley and sculptor, Anish Kapoor and Henry Moore. During the late 1980s and 1990s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as "Young British Artists": Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili, Rachel Whiteread, Tracey Emin, Mark Wallinger, Steve McQueen, Sam Taylor-Wood and the Chapman Brothers are more famous members of loosely affiliated movement.

Royal Academy in London is a key organization for the promotion of visual arts in Britain. Major UK art school which includes: six University of London Art School, which includes the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and Chelsea College of Art and Design; Goldsmiths, University of London; Slade School of Fine Art (part of University College London), while the Glasgow School of Art, Royal College of Art, and the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Arts (part of Oxford University). Courtauld Institute for Art is a leading center for teaching art history. Important art galleries in the UK including the National Gallery, National Portrait Gallery, Tate Britain and Tate Modern (the most visited modern art gallery in the world, with about 4.7 million visitors per year).

Music of the United Kingdom

Various styles of music popular in Britain from the original English folk music, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland for heavy metals. Leading composer of classical music from the UK and the countries that preceded it include William Byrd, Henry Purcell, Sir Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with the opera Sir WS Gilbert), Ralph Vaughan Williams and Benjamin Britten, pioneer modern British opera. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies is one of the leading living composer and music teacher at Queen's. The UK is also home to world-renowned symphony orchestra and chorus as the BBC Symphony Orchestra and London Symphony Chorus. Famous conductors including Sir Simon Rattle, John Barbirolli and Sir Malcolm Sargent. Some important film score composers include John Barry, Clint Mansell, Mike Oldfield, John Powell, Craig Armstrong, David Arnold, John Murphy, Monty Norman and Harry Gregson-Williams. George Frideric Handel, though born German, was a naturalized British citizen and some of his best work, like the Messiah, written in English. Andrew Lloyd Webber has achieved great success around the world and is a prolific composer of musical theater, the work that has dominated the West End, London for several years and have traveled to Broadway in New York.

The Beatles have an international sales of more than one billion units and is the biggest-selling acts and most influential in the history of popular music . Other prominent contributors have influenced British popular music over the last 50 years including the Queen, Cliff Richard, Bee Gees, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and The Rolling Stones, who all had record sales world wide 200 million or more . According to a study by the Guinness World Record-eight out of ten UK singles action with the most English chart: Status Quo, Queen, The Rolling Stones, UB40, Depeche Mode, Bee Gees, Pet Shop Boys and Manic Street Preachers . action of the newer music of England's international success, including Oasis, Radiohead, Spice Girls, Coldplay, One Way and Adele.

A number of UK cities are known for their music. The story of Liverpool has more number one UK chart hit single per capita (54) from other cities around the world. Glasgow musical contribution was recognized in 2008 when it was named a UNESCO City of Music, one of three cities in the world to have this honor. [388]

Literary Culture

British culture has been influenced by many factors including: the status of the island nation; history as a western liberal democracy and a major force; as well as being a political union of four countries in each of the elements preserve the unique traditions, customs and symbolism. As a result of the British Empire, British influence can be observed in the system of language, culture and laws of many former colonies, including Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States.

'English Literature' refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and Channel Islands as well as the literature of England, Wales and Scotland prior to the establishment of the UK. [Citation needed] The majority of English literature in English. In 2005, some 206 000 books published in England and in 2006 it is the largest publisher of books in the world.

The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely considered the greatest playwright of all time, and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been constantly upheld. Recently playwright Alan Ayckbourn, Harold Pinter, Michael Frayn, Tom Stoppard and David Edgar have combined elements of surrealism, realism and radicalism.

Britain's leading writers of pre-modern and early modern, including Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), Thomas Malory (15th century), Sir Thomas More (16th century), and John Milton (17th century). In the 18th century Daniel Defoe (author of Robinson Crusoe) and Samuel Richardson was a pioneer of the modern novel. In the 19 th century there was further innovation by Jane Austen, Gothic novelist Mary Shelley, author Lewis Carroll children, Brontë sisters, Charles Dickens the social activist, naturalist Thomas Hardy, George Eliot realist, visionary poet William Blake and romantic poet William Wordsworth. Writers of the 20th century English include: science fiction novelist HG Wells, the classic children's author Rudyard Kipling, AA Milne (creator of Winnie-the-Pooh), Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton; controversial DH Lawrence; modernist Virginia Woolf, the satirist Evelyn Waugh; novelist George Orwell's prophetic, while the popular novelist W. Somerset Maugham and Graham Greene, crime writer Agatha Christie (best-selling novelist of all time); Ian Fleming (creator of James Bond); the poet TS Eliot, Philip Larkin and Ted Hughes, and fantasy writer JRR Tolkien, CS Lewis and JK Rowling .
A photo of a Victorian novelist Charles Dickens

Scotland's contribution includes the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle (creator of Sherlock Holmes), romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott, author of the children JM Barrie, Robert Louis Stevenson's epic adventure and the famous poet Robert Burns. Recently modernist and nationalist Hugh MacDiarmid and Neil M. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in the story of Ian Rankin and psychological horror-comedy Iain Banks. Scottish capital, Edinburgh, was the first City of Literature UNESCO worldwide.

The oldest known English poem, Y Gododdin, composed at Yr Hen Ogledd (Old North), most likely in the late sixth century. It is written in Cumbric or Old Welsh and contains the earliest known reference to King Arthur From about the seventh century, the relationship between Wales and the North Long gone, and the focus of Welsh-language culture shifted to Wales., Where the legend of Arthur was further developed by Geoffrey of Monmouth . The most famous poet of medieval Wales, Dafydd ap Gwilym (fl 1320-1370), the poem consists of themes including nature, religion and especially love. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets his age Until the late 19th century. The majority of Welsh literature in Welsh and most of the prose was religious in character. Daniel Owen is credited as the first-language Welsh novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in 1885. The most famous of the Anglo-Welsh poet both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the mid-20th century. Swansea writer remembered for his poetry - his "Do not go gentle into that good night: Rage, rage against the dying light." is one of the most quoted verse of English verse - and to 'play for voices' it, Under Milk Wood. Influential church in the 'poet-priest Wales and Welsh nationalists, RS Thomas, nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1996. Welsh's leading novelists of the twentieth century, including Richard Llewellyn and Kate Roberts. Welsh writer currently include Gillian Clarke, Mihangel Morgan, and Wiliam Owen Roberts.

Writers of other countries, mainly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, has lived and worked in England. Significant examples through the centuries include Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Conrad, TS Eliot, Ezra Pound and more recently British authors born abroad such as Kazuo Ishiguro and Sir Salman Rushdie

Health in the UK

Health in the UK is devolved issue and each country has its own system of private health care and publicly funded, along with alternative medicine, holistic and complementary. Public health is provided to all permanent UK residents and is free at the point of need, paid for from general taxation. World Health Organization, in 2000, ranked the provision of healthcare in the UK as Europe's best fifteenth and eighteenth in the world.

Regulatory bodies are regulated by the UK-wide such as the General Medical Council, Nursing and Midwifery Council and non-government-based, such as the Royal Colleges. However, political and operational responsibility for health lies with the four national executive; health in the UK is the responsibility of the British Government; health in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Executive of Northern Ireland; health in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government, and health in Wales is the responsibility Welsh Assembly Government said. Each of the National Health Service has policies and priorities are different, so the contrast .

Since 1979 spending on health has increased significantly to bring it closer to the EU average. Britain spends about 8.4 percent of gross domestic product on health, which is 0.5 percentage points below the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development average and about one percentage point below the EU average.

Education

Education in the UK is devolved matter, with each state has a separate education system.

Education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education, despite the daily administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local government. Universal state education is free of charge introduced gradually between 1870 and 1944, with education became compulsory for all 5 to 14 year-olds in 1921 . Education is now compulsory from ages 5-16 (15 if born in late July or August). The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, only a minority who voted on the basis of academic ability. State schools are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to the private schools of the most selective: of the ten schools of superior performance in terms of GCSE results in 2006 are the two state-run grammar schools. Although the decline in the proportion of the actual number of children in England attend private schools has increased to more than 7%. More than half of students at leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools . Universities in the UK including some of the best universities in the world:. University of Cambridge, University College London, University of Oxford and Imperial College London, all ranks in world's top 10 in the 2010 QS World University Rankings, Cambridge was ranked first with Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessed students in the UK 7 in the world for mathematics and for science 6. The results put England ahead of the students of other European countries, including Germany and the Scandinavian countries.


Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning, with day-to-day administration and funding of public schools the responsibility of local government. Two non-departmental public bodies have an important role in the education of Scotland: Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the accreditation of development assessment, and certification of qualifications other than degrees delivered in secondary schools, post-secondary schools, further education colleges and other centers; .. Learning and Teaching Scotland provides advice, resources and staff development for the educational community to promote the development of curriculum and create a culture of innovation, ambition and excellence was passed to Scotland's first compulsory education in 1496 The proportion of children in school Scotland attending private just over 4%, although it has risen slowly in recent years. Scottish students who attend Scottish universities pay tuition fees nor graduate contribution, as the fee was abolished in 2001 and graduate endowment scheme was abolished in 2008.

Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education and Minister of Labour and Learning, although responsibility at the local level is administered by five education and library boards that cover different geographical areas. Council Curriculum, Examination and Assessment (CCEA) is the body responsible for advising the government on what should be taught in Northern Ireland schools, monitoring standards and provision of qualifications. Welsh Government has the responsibility for education in Wales. A large number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or mainly in the Welsh language; lessons in Welsh is compulsory for all until the age of 16 There are plans to increase the provision of Welsh schools as part of the policy. creating a bilingual Wales.

Migration

Britain has experienced successive waves of migration. Great Famine Irish immigrants brought huge waves More than 120,000 Polish veterans settled in England after World War II, can not return home. In the 20th century occurred significant immigration from former colonies and newly independent colonies, driven by post-World War II labor shortages. Many of the migrants came from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent.

In 2010, there were 7.0 million foreign-born residents in Britain, according to 11.3% of the total population. Of these, 4.76 million (7.7%) were born outside the EU and 2.24 million (3.6%) were born in the EU Member States. The proportion of foreign-born people in Britain are still slightly below that several other European countries, although immigration has contributed to rising population, accounting for about half of the increase in population between 1991 and 2001. Analysis of Data Office for National Statistics show that 2.3 million net migrants moved to England in the period 1991-2006. In 2008, predicted that the migration will add 7 million UK population by 2031, although the figures are disputed . Based on the Office for National Statistics (ONS), net migration to 12 months in 2010 jumped 21 percent to 239 000 from 2009. Immigration in 2010 was 575 000, or relatively stable since 2004, while the number of people leaving Britain to live abroad for more than 12 months only 336 000.

195 046 foreign nationals became British citizen in 2010, compared with 54 902 in 1999. [318] [319] A record 241 192 people are given the right of permanent settlement in 2010, of which 51 per cent came from Asia and 27 percent of Africa [320] 24.7 percent of babies born in England and Wales in 2009. born to mothers who were born outside the UK, according to official statistics released in 2010.


At least 5.5 million British-born people living abroad, four of a destination Australia, Spain, the United States and Canada . Emigration is an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between 1815 and 1930 about 11.4 million people emigrated from the UK and 7.3 million from Ireland. Estimates show that at the end of the 20th century some 300 million people are descendants of British and Irish settled permanently around the world.

EU citizens have the right to live and work in each member state, including the UK. Transitional arrangements apply to Romania and Bulgaria, whose country joined the EU in January 2007. Research conducted by the Migration Policy Institute for the Equality and Human Rights Commission shows that, between May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million workers migrated from the new EU members to the UK, two thirds of them Poles, but that many since returning home, resulting in a net increase in the number of citizens of new member states in the United Kingdom from some 700 000 over the period . end of the 2000s recession in the UK to reduce the economic incentive for Poles to migrate to the UK, to be temporary and circular migration. In 2009, for the first time since enlargement, citizens of more than eight Central and Eastern European countries that joined the European Union in 2004 left Britain than arrived.

The British government today introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area that will replace the existing scheme, including the Fresh Talent Initiative Scottish Government In June of 2010. Conservative-Liberal coalition government Democrats introduced a temporary cap on immigration of those entering Britain from outside the EU, with limits set at 24100, which is expected to stop the rush of applications before the permanent cap imposed in April 2011. hat has caused tension within the coalition: the business secretary Vince Cable argues that it is detrimental to the business English .

Religion

Form of Christianity has dominated religious life in what is now the UK for more than 1,400 years . Although the majority of people still identify with Christianity in many surveys, regular church attendance has fallen dramatically since the mid-20th century, while immigration and demographic changes have contributed to the growth of other religions, especially Islam . This has led some commentators to describe a variety of English as a multi-faith, secular, or post-Christian society In 2001 71.6% of all census respondents. show that they are Christians, with the next largest religious (the number of followers) to Islam (2.8%), Hindu (1.0%), Sikhs (0.6%), Jews (0.5%), Buddhists (0.3%) and all other religions (0.3%) . 15% of respondents stated that they had no religion, with a further 7% stated no religious preference. A Tearfund survey in 2007 showed only one in ten Britons actually attend church every week.

Church (Anglican) Church of England was established in the UK . It still has a representative in British Parliament and the British monarch is the Supreme Governor of his In Scotland. Presbyterian Church of Scotland is recognized as a national church. It is not subject to state control, and the king of England is an ordinary member, is required to swear to "defend and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" in his or her accession. The Church in Wales was dissolved in 1920, and there is no established church in Northern Ireland. Although there is no UK-wide census data in 2001 on compliance with the individual Christian denominations, Ceri Peach estimates that 62% of Christians are Anglican, Roman Catholic 13.5%, 6% Presbyterian, Methodist 3.4% by number other smaller Protestant denominations and Orthodox churches.

language

English the official language is English, West Germanic language Old English descent who have a large loan from Old Norse, Norman French, Greek and Latin. English has spread around the world, mainly because the United Kingdom, and has become the international language of business as well as a second language most widely taught.

Scotland, the language fell from early northern Middle English, is recognized at European level, such as regional variants in the northern counties of Ireland, Ulster Scots. There are also four Celtic languages ​​are spoken in the UK: Welsh, Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Cornish. In the 2001 Census over a fifth (21%) of the population of Wales said they could speak Welsh, an increase from the 1991 Census (18%). In addition it is estimated that about 200,000 Welsh speakers living in England.

Census 2001 in Northern Ireland shows that 167 487 (10.4%) of people "have some knowledge of Irish" (see Irish language in Northern Ireland), almost exclusively on the Catholic population / nationalist. More than 92,000 people in Scotland (just under 2% of the population) had some Gaelic language ability, including 72% of those living in the Outer Hebrides. The number of school children are taught in Welsh, and Irish Gaelic increased. Welsh and Scottish Gaelic are also spoken by small groups around the globe with some Gaelic still spoken in Nova Scotia, Canada (particularly Cape Breton Island), and the Welsh in Patagonia, Argentina.

Across the United Kingdom is generally compulsory for pupils to learn a second language to some extent: up to age 14 in England, and until the age of 16 in Scotland. France and Germany are the two most common second language taught in England and Scotland. In Wales, all students up to age 16 who either taught in Welsh or taught Welsh as a second language.
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...