Liquor Control Board still seeking comments about extending alcohol service hours

In August 2011, the City of Seattle petitioned the Liquor Control Board to consider allowing jurisdictions to extend alcohol service hours beyond 2:00 a.m.  (See posts from April 3, March 14 and November 15.)  The Liquor Control Board hosted hearings around the state and received evenly split testimony with about 50% testifying in favor of extended hours and about 50% testifying against extended hours.  The Liquor Control Board was to make a decision within the next two weeks but has postponed their decision until May 30.

From a prevention standpoint, the federal Community Prevention Services Task Force recommends against extending hours of alcohol sales/service.

In 2003, Vancouver, BC allowed bars in their Granville district to extend closing hours to 3:00 a.m. and, according to a 2007 report by the City and Police Department, between 2002 and 2006:

- The number of police calls between midnight and 6 am increased from 2,000 to over 3,500
- The number of fights doubled from around 140 to almost 300
- The number of disturbance and annoyance calls increased from approximately 310 to 410
- The number of requests for assistance to dispatch doubled from 80 to 160
- The number of stabbings and assaults in progress went from 40 to 100

The Liquor Control Board is still accepting public comments about the City of Seattle's petition.  Comments may be submitted to Liquor Control Board’s Rules Coordinator.  



Google Search for Articles renowned interpreter of tradition 'Empiricism translator', a branch of philosophy of language from the knowledge that only knowledge verified Created experience is valid, and 'Philosophy of Scotland', sometimes referred to as the 'Scottish School of Common Sense' Paragraph Filsuf paled famous Dari translator empiricism is John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume;. Corrected Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid and William Hamilton is a language From the main exponent of the Scottish Schools 'common sense'. Two well-known translator Residents BECAUSE utilitarian theory of moral philosophy, Date time value used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism short work . Other prominent Filsuf language interpreter, and the union of the States and the preceding including Duns Scotus, John Lilburne, Mary Wollstonecraft, Sir Francis Bacon, Adam Smith, Thomas Hobbes, William Ockham Dari, Bertrand Russell and AJ "Freddie" Ayer . The foreign-born living in the translator Filsuf including Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx, Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein


British flag is the Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack). It was first coined in 1606 by the superimposition of the British flag on the flag of Scotland, and updated in 1801 with the addition of Flag of Saint Patrick. Wales is not represented in the Union flag as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom;. Possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out of the British national song is "God Save the King", the "King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics every time the monarchy was a woman.

Britannia is a personification of England, who came from Roman Britain. Britannia is symbolized as a young woman with brown or golden hair wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. He holds three branches of Poseidon's trident and shield, which contains the Union Flag. Sometimes he is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. At and since the peak of the British Empire, Britannia is often associated with maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song "Rule, Britannia!". Until 2008, the symbol of the lion depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and on the back of the coin ten pence English. It is also used as a symbol of the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. Bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of England and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.


Major sports, including football, rugby league, rugby union, rowing, boxing, badminton, cricket, tennis, archery and golf, originated or developed substantially in the UK and the countries that preceded it. A 2003 poll found that football is the most popular sport in the UK. In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are usually field a team representing all Ireland, with the exception of including the Commonwealth Games and the football association. (In the context of sport, this team can be referred to collectively as the Home Nations.), But there are occasions where a single sports team represents the United Kingdom, including at the Olympics where the UK is represented by the England team. London is the site of the 1908 and 1948 Olympics, and in 2012 will be the first city to host a third time.

Each of the United Nations Forum has its own football association system, national teams and leagues, though a few clubs play outside their respective system of their country for a variety of historical and logistical reasons. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland compete as separate countries in international competition and, consequently, the UK does not compete as a team in football events at the Olympic Games . There are proposals to have a British team took part in the 2012 summer Olympics, but the association Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish football has refused to participate, for fear that it would undermine their independent status - fear confirmed by FIFA president Sepp Blatter United Kingdom have be the most successful of the home. won the World Cup on home soil in 1966, although historically close fought competition between England and Scotland.

Cricket has been found in England. The England cricket team, which is controlled by the England and Wales Cricket Board, is the only national team in the UK with Test status. Team members drawn from the main area, and includes both English and Welsh players. Cricket is different from football and rugby pitch where Wales and England national team apart, although Wales has reduced its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because it is not Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and only recently started playing in the One Day International . Scotland, England (and Wales) and Ireland (including Northern Ireland) have competed in the Cricket World Cup, with England reaching the final on three occasions. There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete Rugby league is a popular sport in some parts of England .. It originated in Huddersfield and is generally played in Northern England [431] A single team 'British Lion' has competed in the Rugby League World Cup and play Test matches, but this changed in 2008 when England, Scotland and Ireland compete as separate. countries [432]. Britain is still preserved as a national team for the Ashes tour against Australia, New Zealand and France. The highest form of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe is the Super League where there are 11 teams from Northern England, one from London, one from Wales and one from France. Rugby held separately for England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, each of which has a top-ranked international team and are collectively known as the National Front. Six Nations Championship, played between the United Nations Home as well as Italy and France, is the first international tournament in the northern hemisphere . The Triple Crown granted to the United Nations Home to beat the other three in the tournament.
Wimbledon Championships, Grand Slam tournament, held in Wimbledon, London every June or July

The first game of lawn tennis from the city of Birmingham between 1859 and 1865. The Championships, Wimbledon are international tennis events held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and is considered the most prestigious event in the global tennis calendar. Snooker is one of the export of British popular sport, with world championships held annually in Sheffield. In Northern Ireland's Gaelic football team and the cast is a popular sport, both in terms of participation and spectating, and Irish expatriates throughout the UK and the U.S. also played their Shinty (or camanachd) is popular in the Scottish Highlands ..

Race racing, which originated under Charles II of England as the "king of sports", popular throughout the UK with world-famous races including the Grand National, Epsom Derby, Royal Ascot and the Cheltenham National Hunt Festival (including the Cheltenham Gold Cup). UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. Golf is the sixth most popular sport, with participation, in the UK. Although The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in Scotland is the home of the sport, the world's oldest golf course is actually Musselburgh Old Links Golf Course .

Britain is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One (F1) based in the UK, and British driver has won more world titles than any other country. UK to host first F1 Grand Prix at Silverstone in 1950, the current location of the British Grand Prix is ​​held every year in July. The country also hosts legs of the World Rally Championship and has its own touring car racing championship, the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC).


The BBC, founded in 1922, is publicly funded in British radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates television and radio stations in the UK and overseas and domestic services are funded by television license [410]. [411] Other major players in the British media including ITV plc, which operates 11 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network, and the News Corporation, which has a number of national newspapers such as through international news tabloid The Sun is the most popular and The most long-established daily "newspaper" The Times, and holds a large stake in satellite broadcaster British Sky Broadcasting London dominates the media sector in the UK:. national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, though Manchester is also a significant national media center. Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, is an important center of production of newspapers and broadcasting in Scotland and Wales respectively . UK publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, have a combined turnover of approximately £ 20 billion and employs about 167,000 people .

In 2009 it is estimated that the average individual views 3.75 hours of television per day and 2.81 hours of radio. In the BBC's main public service broadcasting channels are expected to contribute 28.4% of all television viewing;. The three main independent channel accounted for 29.5% and the other satellite and digital channels is increasingly important for the remaining 42.1% Sales of newspapers has been falling since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading daily newspapers nationwide. In 2010, 82.5% of the UK population are internet users, the highest proportion among the 20 countries with the largest number of users in that year.


Britain has had a considerable influence on the history of cinema. The British director Alfred Hitchcock and David Lean is the most critically acclaimed of all time, with other important directors including Charlie Chaplin, Michael Powell, Carol Reed and Ridley Scott. Many British actors have achieved international fame and success, including:. Julie Andrews, Richard Burton, Michael Caine, Charlie Chaplin, Sean Connery, Vivien Leigh, David Niven, Laurence Olivier, Peter Sellers and Kate Winslet Some of the most successful films of all time have been commercially produced in the UK, including the two most successful film franchises (Harry Potter and James Bond) Ealing Studios has a claim as the oldest film studio continued to work in the world ..

Despite a history of significant and successful production, the industry is often characterized by the debate about the identity and magnitude of the influence of America and Europe. Many British films co-production with American producers, often using both British and American actors, and British actor featuring regularly in Hollywood films. Many successful Hollywood movies have been based on the UK, the story of people or events, including Titanic, The Lord of the Rings and Pirates of the Caribbean.

In 2009 the British films earned about $ 2 billion worldwide and achieved a market share of about 7% globally and 17% in England [407]. UK box-office revenues of 944 million pounds in 2009, with about 173 million in revenue. British Film Institute has produced a poll ranking of what is considered the 100 greatest British films of all time, BFI Top 100 British films annual British Academy Film Awards, organized by the British Academy Film. and Television Arts, is the British equivalent of the Oscar.

Visual arts

British art history is part of the history of western art. Great artists in the UK include: Romance William Blake, John Constable, JMW Turner and Samuel Palmer, a portrait painter Sir Joshua Reynolds and Lucian Freud; landscape artist Thomas Gainsborough and LS Lowry; pioneer of Arts and Crafts Movement William Morris; figurative painter Francis Bacon; the Pop artist Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton and David Hockney; collaborative duo Gilbert and George; abstract artist Howard Hodgkin, Antony Gormley and sculptor, Anish Kapoor and Henry Moore. During the late 1980s and 1990s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as "Young British Artists": Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili, Rachel Whiteread, Tracey Emin, Mark Wallinger, Steve McQueen, Sam Taylor-Wood and the Chapman Brothers are more famous members of loosely affiliated movement.

Royal Academy in London is a key organization for the promotion of visual arts in Britain. Major UK art school which includes: six University of London Art School, which includes the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and Chelsea College of Art and Design; Goldsmiths, University of London; Slade School of Fine Art (part of University College London), while the Glasgow School of Art, Royal College of Art, and the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Arts (part of Oxford University). Courtauld Institute for Art is a leading center for teaching art history. Important art galleries in the UK including the National Gallery, National Portrait Gallery, Tate Britain and Tate Modern (the most visited modern art gallery in the world, with about 4.7 million visitors per year).

Music of the United Kingdom

Various styles of music popular in Britain from the original English folk music, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland for heavy metals. Leading composer of classical music from the UK and the countries that preceded it include William Byrd, Henry Purcell, Sir Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with the opera Sir WS Gilbert), Ralph Vaughan Williams and Benjamin Britten, pioneer modern British opera. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies is one of the leading living composer and music teacher at Queen's. The UK is also home to world-renowned symphony orchestra and chorus as the BBC Symphony Orchestra and London Symphony Chorus. Famous conductors including Sir Simon Rattle, John Barbirolli and Sir Malcolm Sargent. Some important film score composers include John Barry, Clint Mansell, Mike Oldfield, John Powell, Craig Armstrong, David Arnold, John Murphy, Monty Norman and Harry Gregson-Williams. George Frideric Handel, though born German, was a naturalized British citizen and some of his best work, like the Messiah, written in English. Andrew Lloyd Webber has achieved great success around the world and is a prolific composer of musical theater, the work that has dominated the West End, London for several years and have traveled to Broadway in New York.

The Beatles have an international sales of more than one billion units and is the biggest-selling acts and most influential in the history of popular music . Other prominent contributors have influenced British popular music over the last 50 years including the Queen, Cliff Richard, Bee Gees, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and The Rolling Stones, who all had record sales world wide 200 million or more . According to a study by the Guinness World Record-eight out of ten UK singles action with the most English chart: Status Quo, Queen, The Rolling Stones, UB40, Depeche Mode, Bee Gees, Pet Shop Boys and Manic Street Preachers . action of the newer music of England's international success, including Oasis, Radiohead, Spice Girls, Coldplay, One Way and Adele.

A number of UK cities are known for their music. The story of Liverpool has more number one UK chart hit single per capita (54) from other cities around the world. Glasgow musical contribution was recognized in 2008 when it was named a UNESCO City of Music, one of three cities in the world to have this honor. [388]

Literary Culture

British culture has been influenced by many factors including: the status of the island nation; history as a western liberal democracy and a major force; as well as being a political union of four countries in each of the elements preserve the unique traditions, customs and symbolism. As a result of the British Empire, British influence can be observed in the system of language, culture and laws of many former colonies, including Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States.

'English Literature' refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and Channel Islands as well as the literature of England, Wales and Scotland prior to the establishment of the UK. [Citation needed] The majority of English literature in English. In 2005, some 206 000 books published in England and in 2006 it is the largest publisher of books in the world.

The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely considered the greatest playwright of all time, and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been constantly upheld. Recently playwright Alan Ayckbourn, Harold Pinter, Michael Frayn, Tom Stoppard and David Edgar have combined elements of surrealism, realism and radicalism.

Britain's leading writers of pre-modern and early modern, including Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), Thomas Malory (15th century), Sir Thomas More (16th century), and John Milton (17th century). In the 18th century Daniel Defoe (author of Robinson Crusoe) and Samuel Richardson was a pioneer of the modern novel. In the 19 th century there was further innovation by Jane Austen, Gothic novelist Mary Shelley, author Lewis Carroll children, Brontë sisters, Charles Dickens the social activist, naturalist Thomas Hardy, George Eliot realist, visionary poet William Blake and romantic poet William Wordsworth. Writers of the 20th century English include: science fiction novelist HG Wells, the classic children's author Rudyard Kipling, AA Milne (creator of Winnie-the-Pooh), Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton; controversial DH Lawrence; modernist Virginia Woolf, the satirist Evelyn Waugh; novelist George Orwell's prophetic, while the popular novelist W. Somerset Maugham and Graham Greene, crime writer Agatha Christie (best-selling novelist of all time); Ian Fleming (creator of James Bond); the poet TS Eliot, Philip Larkin and Ted Hughes, and fantasy writer JRR Tolkien, CS Lewis and JK Rowling .
A photo of a Victorian novelist Charles Dickens

Scotland's contribution includes the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle (creator of Sherlock Holmes), romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott, author of the children JM Barrie, Robert Louis Stevenson's epic adventure and the famous poet Robert Burns. Recently modernist and nationalist Hugh MacDiarmid and Neil M. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in the story of Ian Rankin and psychological horror-comedy Iain Banks. Scottish capital, Edinburgh, was the first City of Literature UNESCO worldwide.

The oldest known English poem, Y Gododdin, composed at Yr Hen Ogledd (Old North), most likely in the late sixth century. It is written in Cumbric or Old Welsh and contains the earliest known reference to King Arthur From about the seventh century, the relationship between Wales and the North Long gone, and the focus of Welsh-language culture shifted to Wales., Where the legend of Arthur was further developed by Geoffrey of Monmouth . The most famous poet of medieval Wales, Dafydd ap Gwilym (fl 1320-1370), the poem consists of themes including nature, religion and especially love. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets his age Until the late 19th century. The majority of Welsh literature in Welsh and most of the prose was religious in character. Daniel Owen is credited as the first-language Welsh novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in 1885. The most famous of the Anglo-Welsh poet both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the mid-20th century. Swansea writer remembered for his poetry - his "Do not go gentle into that good night: Rage, rage against the dying light." is one of the most quoted verse of English verse - and to 'play for voices' it, Under Milk Wood. Influential church in the 'poet-priest Wales and Welsh nationalists, RS Thomas, nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1996. Welsh's leading novelists of the twentieth century, including Richard Llewellyn and Kate Roberts. Welsh writer currently include Gillian Clarke, Mihangel Morgan, and Wiliam Owen Roberts.

Writers of other countries, mainly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, has lived and worked in England. Significant examples through the centuries include Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Conrad, TS Eliot, Ezra Pound and more recently British authors born abroad such as Kazuo Ishiguro and Sir Salman Rushdie

Health in the UK

Health in the UK is devolved issue and each country has its own system of private health care and publicly funded, along with alternative medicine, holistic and complementary. Public health is provided to all permanent UK residents and is free at the point of need, paid for from general taxation. World Health Organization, in 2000, ranked the provision of healthcare in the UK as Europe's best fifteenth and eighteenth in the world.

Regulatory bodies are regulated by the UK-wide such as the General Medical Council, Nursing and Midwifery Council and non-government-based, such as the Royal Colleges. However, political and operational responsibility for health lies with the four national executive; health in the UK is the responsibility of the British Government; health in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Executive of Northern Ireland; health in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government, and health in Wales is the responsibility Welsh Assembly Government said. Each of the National Health Service has policies and priorities are different, so the contrast .

Since 1979 spending on health has increased significantly to bring it closer to the EU average. Britain spends about 8.4 percent of gross domestic product on health, which is 0.5 percentage points below the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development average and about one percentage point below the EU average.


Education in the UK is devolved matter, with each state has a separate education system.

Education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education, despite the daily administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local government. Universal state education is free of charge introduced gradually between 1870 and 1944, with education became compulsory for all 5 to 14 year-olds in 1921 . Education is now compulsory from ages 5-16 (15 if born in late July or August). The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, only a minority who voted on the basis of academic ability. State schools are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to the private schools of the most selective: of the ten schools of superior performance in terms of GCSE results in 2006 are the two state-run grammar schools. Although the decline in the proportion of the actual number of children in England attend private schools has increased to more than 7%. More than half of students at leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools . Universities in the UK including some of the best universities in the world:. University of Cambridge, University College London, University of Oxford and Imperial College London, all ranks in world's top 10 in the 2010 QS World University Rankings, Cambridge was ranked first with Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessed students in the UK 7 in the world for mathematics and for science 6. The results put England ahead of the students of other European countries, including Germany and the Scandinavian countries.

Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning, with day-to-day administration and funding of public schools the responsibility of local government. Two non-departmental public bodies have an important role in the education of Scotland: Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the accreditation of development assessment, and certification of qualifications other than degrees delivered in secondary schools, post-secondary schools, further education colleges and other centers; .. Learning and Teaching Scotland provides advice, resources and staff development for the educational community to promote the development of curriculum and create a culture of innovation, ambition and excellence was passed to Scotland's first compulsory education in 1496 The proportion of children in school Scotland attending private just over 4%, although it has risen slowly in recent years. Scottish students who attend Scottish universities pay tuition fees nor graduate contribution, as the fee was abolished in 2001 and graduate endowment scheme was abolished in 2008.

Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education and Minister of Labour and Learning, although responsibility at the local level is administered by five education and library boards that cover different geographical areas. Council Curriculum, Examination and Assessment (CCEA) is the body responsible for advising the government on what should be taught in Northern Ireland schools, monitoring standards and provision of qualifications. Welsh Government has the responsibility for education in Wales. A large number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or mainly in the Welsh language; lessons in Welsh is compulsory for all until the age of 16 There are plans to increase the provision of Welsh schools as part of the policy. creating a bilingual Wales.


Britain has experienced successive waves of migration. Great Famine Irish immigrants brought huge waves More than 120,000 Polish veterans settled in England after World War II, can not return home. In the 20th century occurred significant immigration from former colonies and newly independent colonies, driven by post-World War II labor shortages. Many of the migrants came from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent.

In 2010, there were 7.0 million foreign-born residents in Britain, according to 11.3% of the total population. Of these, 4.76 million (7.7%) were born outside the EU and 2.24 million (3.6%) were born in the EU Member States. The proportion of foreign-born people in Britain are still slightly below that several other European countries, although immigration has contributed to rising population, accounting for about half of the increase in population between 1991 and 2001. Analysis of Data Office for National Statistics show that 2.3 million net migrants moved to England in the period 1991-2006. In 2008, predicted that the migration will add 7 million UK population by 2031, although the figures are disputed . Based on the Office for National Statistics (ONS), net migration to 12 months in 2010 jumped 21 percent to 239 000 from 2009. Immigration in 2010 was 575 000, or relatively stable since 2004, while the number of people leaving Britain to live abroad for more than 12 months only 336 000.

195 046 foreign nationals became British citizen in 2010, compared with 54 902 in 1999. [318] [319] A record 241 192 people are given the right of permanent settlement in 2010, of which 51 per cent came from Asia and 27 percent of Africa [320] 24.7 percent of babies born in England and Wales in 2009. born to mothers who were born outside the UK, according to official statistics released in 2010.

At least 5.5 million British-born people living abroad, four of a destination Australia, Spain, the United States and Canada . Emigration is an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between 1815 and 1930 about 11.4 million people emigrated from the UK and 7.3 million from Ireland. Estimates show that at the end of the 20th century some 300 million people are descendants of British and Irish settled permanently around the world.

EU citizens have the right to live and work in each member state, including the UK. Transitional arrangements apply to Romania and Bulgaria, whose country joined the EU in January 2007. Research conducted by the Migration Policy Institute for the Equality and Human Rights Commission shows that, between May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million workers migrated from the new EU members to the UK, two thirds of them Poles, but that many since returning home, resulting in a net increase in the number of citizens of new member states in the United Kingdom from some 700 000 over the period . end of the 2000s recession in the UK to reduce the economic incentive for Poles to migrate to the UK, to be temporary and circular migration. In 2009, for the first time since enlargement, citizens of more than eight Central and Eastern European countries that joined the European Union in 2004 left Britain than arrived.

The British government today introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area that will replace the existing scheme, including the Fresh Talent Initiative Scottish Government In June of 2010. Conservative-Liberal coalition government Democrats introduced a temporary cap on immigration of those entering Britain from outside the EU, with limits set at 24100, which is expected to stop the rush of applications before the permanent cap imposed in April 2011. hat has caused tension within the coalition: the business secretary Vince Cable argues that it is detrimental to the business English .


Form of Christianity has dominated religious life in what is now the UK for more than 1,400 years . Although the majority of people still identify with Christianity in many surveys, regular church attendance has fallen dramatically since the mid-20th century, while immigration and demographic changes have contributed to the growth of other religions, especially Islam . This has led some commentators to describe a variety of English as a multi-faith, secular, or post-Christian society In 2001 71.6% of all census respondents. show that they are Christians, with the next largest religious (the number of followers) to Islam (2.8%), Hindu (1.0%), Sikhs (0.6%), Jews (0.5%), Buddhists (0.3%) and all other religions (0.3%) . 15% of respondents stated that they had no religion, with a further 7% stated no religious preference. A Tearfund survey in 2007 showed only one in ten Britons actually attend church every week.

Church (Anglican) Church of England was established in the UK . It still has a representative in British Parliament and the British monarch is the Supreme Governor of his In Scotland. Presbyterian Church of Scotland is recognized as a national church. It is not subject to state control, and the king of England is an ordinary member, is required to swear to "defend and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" in his or her accession. The Church in Wales was dissolved in 1920, and there is no established church in Northern Ireland. Although there is no UK-wide census data in 2001 on compliance with the individual Christian denominations, Ceri Peach estimates that 62% of Christians are Anglican, Roman Catholic 13.5%, 6% Presbyterian, Methodist 3.4% by number other smaller Protestant denominations and Orthodox churches.


English the official language is English, West Germanic language Old English descent who have a large loan from Old Norse, Norman French, Greek and Latin. English has spread around the world, mainly because the United Kingdom, and has become the international language of business as well as a second language most widely taught.

Scotland, the language fell from early northern Middle English, is recognized at European level, such as regional variants in the northern counties of Ireland, Ulster Scots. There are also four Celtic languages ​​are spoken in the UK: Welsh, Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Cornish. In the 2001 Census over a fifth (21%) of the population of Wales said they could speak Welsh, an increase from the 1991 Census (18%). In addition it is estimated that about 200,000 Welsh speakers living in England.

Census 2001 in Northern Ireland shows that 167 487 (10.4%) of people "have some knowledge of Irish" (see Irish language in Northern Ireland), almost exclusively on the Catholic population / nationalist. More than 92,000 people in Scotland (just under 2% of the population) had some Gaelic language ability, including 72% of those living in the Outer Hebrides. The number of school children are taught in Welsh, and Irish Gaelic increased. Welsh and Scottish Gaelic are also spoken by small groups around the globe with some Gaelic still spoken in Nova Scotia, Canada (particularly Cape Breton Island), and the Welsh in Patagonia, Argentina.

Across the United Kingdom is generally compulsory for pupils to learn a second language to some extent: up to age 14 in England, and until the age of 16 in Scotland. France and Germany are the two most common second language taught in England and Scotland. In Wales, all students up to age 16 who either taught in Welsh or taught Welsh as a second language.


Historically, the native British people regarded as the descendants of various ethnic groups who settled there before the 11th century: the Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxon, Norway and Normandy. Recent genetic research shows that more than 50 percent of the Y chromosome contains genes English Germanic, although more recent genetic analysis indicates that "approximately 75 percent of traceable ancestors of the modern British population has arrived on the island of Britain about 6200 years ago, in the early Neolithic England or the Stone Age, "and that Britain is widely shared common ancestry with the Basque people.

Britain has a history of small scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the Black population in the country's oldest dating back to at least the 1730s, and the oldest Chinese community in Europe, dating the arrival of Chinese seamen in the 19th century. In 1950 there may be fewer than 20,000 non-whites in Britain, almost all born overseas.

Since 1945 a large immigration from the African, Caribbean and South Asia have a legacy of ties forged by the United Kingdom. Migration from new EU members in Central and Eastern Europe since 2004 has resulted in the growth in population groups but, in 2008, the trend is reversing and many of the migrants returned home, leaving the group size is unknown. In 2001, 92.1% of the population identified themselves as White, leaving 7.9% of UK population identified themselves as mixed race or ethnic minority.

Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. 30.4% of the population of London and Leicester 37.4% of the estimated non-white in June 2005, while less than 5% of the population of North East England, Wales and South West are from ethnic minorities according to the 2001 census. In 2011, 26.5% and 22.2% of primary students in secondary schools in England are members of ethnic minorities.


A Census occurs simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. Office for National Statistics is responsible for collecting the data for England and Wales, General Register Office for Scotland and Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency respectively responsible for the census in their respective countries. In the 2001 census the population of England is 58,789,194, the third largest in the European Union, the fifth largest in the Commonwealth and the twenty-first largest in the world. In mid-2010 is expected to grow to 62.262 million. 2010 is the third year in a row in which the natural changes contribute more to population growth from net long-term international migration. Between 2001 and 2010 the population increased by an average annual rate of 0.6 percent. This compares with 0.3 percent per year in the period 1991-2001 and 0.2 percent in the decade 1981 to 1991. Mid-2007 population estimates revealed that, for the first time, Britain is home to more people of retirement age than children under the age of 16 [256] It has been estimated that the number of people aged 100 or more will rise. sharply to more than 626 000 by 2080.

UK population by mid-2010 an estimated 52.23 million [255]. This is one of the world's most populous country, with 383 inhabitants per square kilometer in mid-2003, with particular concentration in London and the south-east. Mid-2010 estimate put the population at 5.22 million Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 3.01 million on 1.80 million, with a population density much lower than the UK. Compared with England 383 inhabitants per square kilometer (990 / sq mi), the corresponding figures were 142 / km2 (370 / sq mi) for Wales, 125 / km2 (320 / sq mi) for Northern Ireland and 65 / km2 ( 170 / sq mi) for Scotland in the mid-2003. In terms of percentage of Northern Ireland has the fastest growing population of any UK country on each of four years until mid-2008.

In 2009 the average birth rate of total (TFR) in the UK was 1.94 children per woman. While the birth rate increases contributed to the current population growth, is still far below the peak of 'baby boom' of 2.95 children per woman in 1964, below the replacement level of 2.1, but higher than the 2001 record low 1.63. In 2010, Scotland has the lowest TFR of only 1.75, followed by Wales at 1.98, 2.00 for Britain and Northern Ireland at 2.06.


In 2006 Britain was the world's ninth largest energy consumer and largest producer-15. In 2007, Britain has a total energy output of 9.5 quadrillion BTU, which is composed of oil (38%), natural gas (36%), coal (13%), nuclear (11%) and other renewables (2%) [246] in 2009 the UK produced 1.5 million barrels per day (bbl / d) of oil and consumed 1.7 million bbl / d.Production now declining and the UK has become a net importer of oil since 2005 .. In 2010 the UK has about 3.1 billion barrels of proven crude oil reserves, the largest of any EU member state.

In 2009 the UK is the largest producer of natural gas-13 in the world and the largest producer in the EU. Production is now declining and the UK has become a net importer of natural gas since 2004.In 2009 the UK produced 19.7 million tons of coal and consumed 60.2 million tons. In 2005, it has proven recoverable coal reserves of 171 million tonnes. It is estimated that the area of ​​land identified as having the potential to generate between 7 billion tonnes and 16 billion tons of coal through underground coal gasification (UCG). Based on current UK coal consumption, this volume is a backup that can last between 200 and Britain 400 years. Britain is home to several large energy companies, including two of the six oil and gas "supermajors" - BP and Royal Dutch Shell - and the BG Group.


A radial road network of a total of 29 145 miles (46 904 km) from the main road, 2173 miles (3497 km) of highway and 213 750 miles (344 000 km) of paved roads [99] In the year 2009. There are a total of 34 million vehicles licensed in Great Britain. National Rail network of 10,072 route miles (16 116 km) in Britain and 189 route miles (303 km route) in Northern Ireland to bring over 18,000 passengers and 1,000 freight trains daily. Plans are now being considered to build a new high speed railway line in 2025.

In the year from October 2009-September 2010 as many UK airports handled 211.4 million passengers. In that period the three largest airports are London Heathrow Airport (65.6 million passengers), Gatwick Airport (31.5 million passengers) and London Stansted Airport (18.9 million passengers). London Heathrow Airport, located 24 kilometers (15 miles) west of the capital, has the most international passenger traffic of any airport in the world and is central to the UK flag carrier British Airways, BMI and Virgin Atlantic as well.

Science and technology

England and Scotland, who led the center of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century and Britain led the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and continues to produce scientists and engineers credited with important advances. Major theories of the 17th and 18th centuries, including Isaac Newton, the laws of motion and gravitation lighting has been considered the foundation of modern science, from the 19th century Charles Darwin, the theory of evolution by natural selection is the basis for modern development, biology, and James Clerk Maxwell, who formulated the classical electromagnetic theory, and more recently Stephen Hawking, who has a great theory advanced in the field of cosmology, quantum gravity and black holes investigation. Major scientific discoveries of the 18th century, including hydrogen by Henry Cavendish, from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming, and the structure of DNA, by Francis Crick and others. Major engineering projects and applications by people from England in the 18th century including the steam locomotive, which was developed by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian, of the 19th century electric motor by Michael Faraday, the incandescent light bulb by Joseph Swan, and practical The first telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell, and in the 20th century the world's first working television system by John Logie Baird and others, the jet engine by Frank Whittle, the basis of modern computer by Alan Turing, and the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee.

Modern English plays a leading part in the aviation industry, with companies including Rolls-Royce plays a major role in aero-engine market; BAE Systems acting as the UK's largest company and the sixth largest defense supplier in the Pentagon, and a large including GKN acts as a major supplier for Airbus project . Two UK-based companies, GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, ranked in the top five pharmaceutical companies in the world with sales in 2009, and British companies have discovered and developed more leading medicines than any other country besides the U.S.. Britain remains the leading center of automotive design and production, especially of the engine, and has about 2,600 component manufacturers. Scientific research and development remains important at the university in the UK, with many building science parks to facilitate the production and cooperation with industry. Between 2004 and 2008 the UK produced 7% of the world's scientific research and has a share of 8% of scientific citations, third and second highest in the world (after the United States and China, and the United States, respectively). Scientific journals produced in the UK include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet.


Britain has the most regulated market economy. Based on current market price of the UK currency is the world's sixth largest economy and third largest in Europe after Germany and France, after falling behind France for the first time in more than a decade in 2008. HM Treasury, headed by minister of finance, responsible for developing and implementing the UK government's public finance policy and economic policy. Bank of England is the UK central bank and is responsible for the issuing country's currency, the Pound Sterling. Bank of Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, in accordance with the Bank to maintain adequate records of England in reserves to cover their problems. Pound sterling is the world's third largest reserve currency (after the U.S. Dollar and Euro). Since 1997 the Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee, led by Governor of the Bank of England, has been responsible for setting interest rates at a level necessary to achieve the inflation target for the economy as a whole is determined by the Chancellor each year.

In the last quarter of 2008 the British economy officially entered recession for the first time since 1991. Unemployment increased from 5.2% in May 2008 to 7.6% in May 2009 and in January 2011 the unemployment rate among 18 to 24-year-olds has increased from 11.9% to 20.3%, the highest since records began in 1992 at this time. Total number of UK government debt rose from 44.5% of GDP in December 2007 to 76.1% of GDP in December 2010.

UK service sector makes up about 73% of GDP. [197] London is one of three "command centers" global economy (along with New York City and Tokyo), is the world's largest financial center with New York, and has a GDP of Europe's largest city. Edinburgh is also one of the largest financial center in Europe. Tourism is very important for the UK economy and, with more than 27 million tourists arrived in 2004, Britain was ranked sixth major tourist destination in the world and London has the most international visitors from the cities of the world. Creative industries accounted for 7% of GVA in 2005 and grew by an average of 6% per year between 1997 and 2005.

The Industrial Revolution began in England with the initial concentration in the textile industry, followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining and steel making. Empire is creating a foreign market for British products, allowing the UK to dominate international trade in the 19th century. As with other industrial countries, coupled with economic decline after two world wars, the British began to lose competitiveness and heavy industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. Manufacturing remains a vital part of the economy but only accounted for 16.7% of national output in 2003.

The automotive industry is an important part of the UK manufacturing sector and employs over 800,000 people, with a turnover of approximately £ 52 billion, generating £ 26.6 billion of exports. The aerospace industry of the UK aerospace industry is the second or third largest national depending on the method of measurement and has an annual turnover of approximately £ 20 billion. The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the British economy and this country has the third highest share of global pharmaceutical R & D expenses (after the United States and Japan).

The poverty line in Britain is generally defined as 60% of household income on average. 13.5 million people in 2007-2008, or 22% of the population, live below this line. This is a higher level of relative poverty than all but four other EU members. In the same year 4.0 million children, 31% of the total, lived in households below the poverty line after housing costs were taken into account. This is a drop 400,000 children from 1998-1999. The UK imports 40% of the food supply.

Foreign relations

Foreign relations of The United Kingdom is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, G7, G8, G20, NATO, the OECD, the WTO, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and is a member state of the European Union. The UK has a "Special Relationship" with the United States and a close partnership with France - the "Entente Cordiale" - and shares nuclear weapons technology with both countries. The UK is also closely allied with the Republic of Ireland; the two countries share a Common Travel Area and many Irish citizens serving in the British Army. Other close allies include other European Union and NATO members, Commonwealth nations, and Japan. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and armed forces. Military The British Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy are Collectively known as the British Armed Forces and Officially as Her Majesty's Armed Forces. The three forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence and controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The British Armed Forces are Among the largest and most technologically sophisticated armed forces in the world, and as of as of 2008 maintained over 20 military deployments around the globe. The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the UK and its overseas territories, promoting the UK's global security interests and supporting international peacekeeping Efforts. They are active and regular of participants in NATO, Including the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, as well as the Five Power Defence Arrangements, RIMPAC and other worldwide coalition operations. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained in Ascension Island, Belize, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Germany, Gibraltar, Kenya and Qatar. According to Various sources, Including the Ministry of Defence, the UK has the third-or fourth-highest military expenditure in the world. Total defense spending currently accounts for around 2.3% - 2.5% of total national GDP. The Royal Navy is a prominent blue-water navy, currently one of only three world wide, with the French Navy and the United States Navy being the other two. The Royal Navy is also Responsible for delivering aspects the UKs Nuclear deterrent via the UK Trident program and four Vanguard class submarines. The United Kingdom Special Forces, Such as the Special Air Service and Special Boat Service, Provide Troops Trained for quick, mobile, military responses in counter-terrorism, land, maritime and amphibious operations, where secrecy or covert Often tactics are required. Recent defense policy has a Stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition. Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone, UK military operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and, most recently, Libya, have Followed this approach. The last war in the which the British military Fought alone was the Falklands War of 1982, in the which They were victorious.
Foreign relations

Britain is a permanent member of UN Security Council, members of the Commonwealth of Nations, G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Council of Europe, OSCE and the EU member states. Britain has a "Special Relationship" with the United States and a close partnership with France - the "Entente Cordiale" - and stocks of nuclear weapons technology with the two countries. England too closely with the Republic of Ireland, both countries share a Common Travel Area and many Irish citizens serving in the British Army. Other close allies, including other EU and NATO member, Commonwealth countries, and Japan. British global presence and influence further strengthened through trade, foreign investment, official development assistance and the armed forces.


British Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy are collectively known as the British Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of the Queen's official. Three forces are managed by the Department of Defense and is controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence.

British Armed Forces are among the largest armed forces and most technologically advanced in the world, and in 2008 as a retained more than 20 military deployments around the world. British Armed Forces accused of protecting the UK and overseas territories, promoting British interests in the global security and international peace support efforts. They are active and regular participants in NATO, including the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, as well as the Five Power Defence Arrangement, RIMPAC and coalition operations around the world. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained in Ascension Island, Belize, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Germany, Gibraltar, Kenya and Qatar.

According to various sources, including the Ministry of Defence, British military expenditures have a third or fourth highest in the world. Total defense spending currently accounts for approximately 2.3% - 2.5% of the total national GDP.

Royal Navy is a prominent blue-water navy, currently one of only three worldwide, with the French Navy and the U.S. Navy being the other two. Royal Navy is also responsible for providing the UKs nuclear deterrent through the UK Trident program and four Vanguard-class submarines.

The United Kingdom Special Forces, such as the Special Air Service and Special Boat Service, provide troops trained for quick, mobile, military responses in counter-terrorism, land, sea and amphibious operations, often where secrecy or secret tactics necessary.

Recent defense policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" would be done as part of the coalition. Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone, British military operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and, most recently, Libya, has followed this approach. The last war in which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War in 1982, where they won.

Law and criminal justice

Britain does not have a single legal system, such as Article 19 of the 1706 Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of a separate legal system of Scotland. Britain currently has three different legal systems: English law, Northern Ireland and Scottish law. A new UK Supreme Court established in October 2009 to replace the Appeals Committee of the House of Lords. Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, including members of the same with the Supreme Court, is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, British Overseas Land and Crown Dependencies.

Both English law, which applies in England and Wales, and Northern Irish law is based on the common-law principles. The essence of the common law is that, in accordance with the law, the law developed by judges in court, applying the meaning of the law, precedent and common to the facts before them to explain the principles of assessment of the relevant laws, which are reported and binding in future similar cases (stare decisis). Court of England and Wales are headed by Senior Courts of England and Wales, which consists of the High Court, High Court of Justice (civil cases) and the Crown Court (for criminal cases). The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country for cases of criminal and civil appeals in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and every decision is made binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often have a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.

Scottish law in force in Scotland, a hybrid system based on common law and civil law principles. The Court is the head of the Court of Session, for civil cases, and the acting High Court, for criminal cases. UK Supreme Court serves as the highest appeal court in civil cases under Scots law. Sheriff Courts deal with civil and criminal cases including conducting criminal trials by jury, which is known as a serious sheriff court, or the Sheriff and no jury, known as the Sheriff Court summary. Scottish legal system and has a unique three possible verdicts for a criminal trial: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven". The second result of "not guilty" and "not proven" in the exemption without the possibility of a retrial.

Crime in England and Wales increased in the period between 1981 and 1995, although that has happened since the height of an overall decline of 48% in 1995-2007/08 crime, according to crime statistics. The prison population in England and Wales has almost doubled over the same period, to more than 80,000, giving England and Wales the highest level of containment in Western Europe by 147 per 100,000. Queen of Prison Service, which is responsible to the Minister of Justice, manages most of the prisons in England and Wales. Crime in Scotland fell to its lowest level for 32 years was recorded in 2009/10, down ten percent. At the same time the Scottish prison population, at more than 8,000, are at record levels and well above design capacity. Scottish Prison Service, which reports to the Cabinet Secretary for Justice, managing Scottish prison. In 2006 a report by the Surveillance Studies Network found that the UK has the highest rate of mass surveillance among western industrial nations.

Handed over the administration of national

Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or Executive, led by a First Minister and unicameral legislative devolution. Britain, the largest country of England, has no executive or legislative delivered and managed and arranged for directly by the British government and parliament on all issues. This situation has raised the question of what is called the West Lothian pertaining to the fact that MPs from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively, on matters affecting England that are handled by the legislature be submitted to their own constituents.

Scottish Government and Parliament have wide ranging powers over any matter not specifically 'reserved' to the British parliament, including education, health, Scots law and local government. After his victory in the 2007 elections, the pro-independence Scottish National Party (SNP) to form a minority government with its leader, Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland. pro-union parties responded to the successful election of the SNP with the Commission on Scottish Devolution creates a report in 2009 and recommended that additional power should be handed over, including the control of half of the income tax raised in Scotland. In the 2011 elections the SNP won re-election and a majority in the parliament of Scotland.

Government and the Welsh National Assembly for Wales have more limited powers than those given to Scotland. After passage of the Government of Wales Act 2006 assembly capable of regulating in an area once given permission by the Assembly act to implement certain regulations to which it has been granted by Westminster through the Legislative Competence Order, but since May 2011 the Assembly has been able to legislate on matters submitted by The story of the Assembly, which does not require prior approval. Welsh government is currently constituted after the general election in 2011, and a minority Labour administration led by Carwyn Jones, who had become First Minister of Labour administration Cymru / Plaid since December 2009.

The Northern Ireland Executive and Assembly have powers closer to those that have been handed over to Scotland. The Executive is led by diarchy unionists and nationalists represent the Assembly. Currently, Peter Robinson (Democratic Unionist Party) and Martin McGuinness (Sinn Fein) is the First Minister and deputy First Minister respectively.

Devolution in Northern Ireland are subject to the provisions of the Good Friday Agreement and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Agreement between the UK and Republic of Ireland. In accordance with the agreement, the participation of members of the Northern Ireland Executive in the North / South Ministerial Council, and co-operation between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on a number of policy areas surrendered, a prerequisite of devolution in Northern Ireland. British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference also established under the agreement, in which "the Irish Government may put forward views and proposals" non-devolved matters relating to Northern Ireland. However, the British government remained sovereign in Northern Ireland unless a majority of the people of Northern Ireland chose to form a united Ireland.

Britain does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not in the power delivered to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Under the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, the British Parliament could, in theory, therefore, to abolish the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly or Northern Ireland Assembly. Indeed, in 1972, the British Parliament prorogued Parliament unilaterally Northern Ireland, set a precedent that is relevant to contemporary institutions delivered in practice., The circumstances in which the British Parliament would abolish devolution given the political constraints created by the referendum decision is unclear. The political constraints placed on the power of the British Parliament to interfere with devolution in Northern Ireland is greater than that associated with Scotland and Wales, given that devolution in Northern Ireland rests on an international treaty by the Irish Government.


Britain has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world-heritage of the British Empire. British Parliament that met in the Palace of Westminster has two houses:. An elected House of Commons and the House of Lords appointed Every bill passed requiring the approval of the Kingdom to become law.

The position of prime minister, head of the British government, including the members of parliament who can earn the trust of the majority in the House of Commons, usually the current leader of the largest political party in the room. The prime minister and his cabinet formally appointed by the king to form a Government of the Queen, although the prime minister to choose his cabinet and, by convention, the Queen respecting the choice of prime minister.
Big sand colored Gothic design of the building next to the chocolate river and road bridges. The building has a large tower, including the great clock-tower.
Palace of Westminster, the seat of both houses of British Parliament

The Cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the party of Prime Minister in both houses of the legislature, and the majority of the House of Commons, to which they are responsible. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, who were all sworn to the Privy Council in England, and became Minister of the Crown. Rt. Hon. David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party, was Prime Minister, First Lord and Finance Minister for the Civil Service since May 11, 2010. For election to the House of Commons, the UK is currently divided into 650 constituencies with each election of the members of Parliament by simple plurality. Elections called by the king as prime minister to advise. Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 require a new election must be called within five years from the previous election.

Three major political parties in the UK are the Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrats. During the 2010 general election, three parties won 622 of the 650 available seats in the House of Commons, 621 seats in 2010 general elections and a more in-delayed in Thirsk and Malton electoral majority. the remaining seats were won by smaller parties that only contest elections in one part of the UK: Scottish National Party (Scotland only), Plaid Cymru (Wales only) and the Democratic Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Ulster Unionist Party and Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland only, though Sinn Fein also contest elections in the Republic of Ireland). In accordance with party policy no elected Sinn Fein members of parliament who had been present in the House of Commons to speak on behalf of their constituents - it is because lawmakers are required to take the oath of allegiance to the king. Current five Sinn Fein MPs, however, since 2002, utilizing the offices and other facilities available at Westminster elections to the European Parliament for the UK currently has 72 MEPs, elected in 12 multi-member constituencies.


Britain is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is head of state of Britain as well as fifteen other Commonwealth of independent states. King has "the right to be consulted, the right to drive, and the right to warn". The United Kingdom has uncodified constitution, as did only three other countries in the world. So most of the British constitution consists of a collection of different written sources, including law, judge-made case law and international treaties, along with a constitutional convention. Since there is no technical difference between ordinary legislation and "constitutional law" of the British Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament and thus has the political power to change or remove almost all the elements of a written or unwritten constitution. However, Parliament can not pass laws that Parliament can not change the future.


Britain has sovereignty over seventeen areas that do not form part of England itself: 14. Across the country the UK and Crown Dependencies three

Fourteen British Overseas Land are: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Antarctic Territory; British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands while; Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Turks and Caicos Islands; Islands Pitcairn; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus and British claims in Antarctica are not universally recognized collective British overseas territory covers an area of ​​land estimated 667 018 .. square miles (1.72757 million km2) and has a population of about 260,000 people. They are the remnants of the British Empire and specifically some chose to remain British territory (Bermuda in 1995 and Gibraltar in 2002).

The Crown Dependencies are the property of the United Kingdom, as opposed to British overseas territory. They consist of the Channel Island of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel Bailiwicks and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. Being independently administered jurisdictions they do not form part of Britain or of the European Union, although the British government to manage foreign affairs and defense and the British Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf. The power to pass legislation that affects the end of the island lies in the hands of their own legislative assemblies, respectively, with the consent of the Crown (Privy Council or, in the case of the Isle of Man, Lieutenant governor under certain circumstances) since. 2005 Crown dependency each have a Chief Minister as head of government.

Administrative divisions

Every British state has its own system of administrative and geographical demarcation, which often has its origins pre-date the British establishment itself. As a result, "there is no common level of administrative unit covering the UK" Until the 19th century there was little change to the settings, but have since become the constant evolution of the role and function. Not change. takes place uniformly and devolution of power over local government to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland means that future changes are unlikely to be uniformly good.

Organization of local government in England is complex, with the division of functions varying according to local arrangements. Legislation on local government in England is decided by the British Parliament and the Government of the United Kingdom, the UK does not have a devolved parliament. The top-tier subdivisions of England are the nine Government office regions or European Union regional government offices One region, Greater London, has had a directly elected assembly and mayor since 2000 following popular support for the proposal in a referendum .. It is intended that other regions will also be given their own regional assemblies elected but the rejection of a proposed assembly in the Northeast region, with a referendum in 2004, this idea was stopped in its tracks. Below the level of the UK have both regional councils and district councils or government entity and consisting of 32 London boroughs of London. Council members selected by the system of first-past-the-post in single member wards or by multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards.

Local government in Scotland is divided from the 32 council areas, with wide variation in size and population. The cities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee as a separate regional council Highland Council area covering one third of Scotland but more than 200,000 people. The power invested in the local authority managed by the elected board members, currently there are 1222 and each part-time salaries. Selection is made through the single transferable vote in multi-member wards to choose three or four councilors. Each council elect a Provost or Convenor to chair meetings of the board and to act as proxies for the area. Board members are subject to a code of conduct enforced by the Standards Commission for Scotland. Association representative of the Scottish local authorities is the Convention on the Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA).

Local government in Wales consists of 22 governmental entity. This includes the cities of Cardiff, Swansea, Newport authorized entity in their own right Elections are held every four years under a system of first-past-the-post .. The most recent elections held in May 2008. Welsh Local Government Association represents the interests of local government in Wales.

Local government in Northern Ireland has, since 1973, has been organized into 26 council districts, each elected by single transferable vote. Their power is limited to services like collecting waste, controlling dogs, and maintaining parks and cemeteries On March 13, 2008. The Executive approved the proposal to create 11 new councils and replace the current system. The next local elections postponed to 2011 to facilitate this.


England has a mild climate, with abundant rainfall throughout the year [99]. Temperature varies with the season rarely drop below -11 ° C (12 ° F) or rise above 35 ° C (95 ° F). prevailing winds are from the south-west and worn mantra often mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean, although the eastern most sheltered from the wind because the majority of rain falls over the eastern part of the western region because it is the driest of the Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf stream , bring mild winters;. especially in the west where a wet winter and even more so on higher ground. Summers are warmest in the south-east England, which is closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and sometimes settles to great depth away from the hills.


England is an area of ​​approximately 243 610 square kilometers (94 060 sq mi). The country occupies a major part of the British Isles and the islands including the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern sixth of the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea to the south-east coast came within 35 kilometers (22 miles) from the northern coast of France, of which are separated by Channel.As England in 1993 10% of British woodland, 46% is used for field grass and 25% used for agriculture. The Royal Observatory Greenwich in London is to determine the point of the Prime Meridian.

Britain lies between latitudes 49 ° to 61 ° N, and longitude 9 ° W to 2 ° E. Northern Ireland share a 360 kilometer (224 mile) land border with the Republic of Ireland. British coastline is 17 820 kilometers (11 073 miles) long. It is connected to continental Europe by the Channel Tunnel, which at 50 kilometers (31 miles) (38 kilometers (24 miles) below the water) is the longest underwater tunnel in the world.

England accounted for more than half of the total area in the UK, which covers 130 395 square kilometers (50 350 sq mi). Most of the country consists of lowland terrain, with mountainous terrain north of Tees-Exe line; including the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District, Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District, Exmoor and Dartmoor. Major rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severn and Humber. Britain is the highest mountain Scafell Pike (978 meters (3209 ft)) in the Lake District. The main rivers are the Severn, Thames, Humber, Tees, Tyne, Tweed, Avon, Exe and the Mersey.

Scotland accounts for just under a third of the total area in the UK, which covers 78 772 square kilometers (30 410 sq mi) and includes nearly eight hundred islands, [105] mainly west and north of the mainland, especially the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. Topography of Scotland is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault-fractured-rock geology across Scotland from Arran in the west to Stonehaven in the east. Faultline separates two distinctly different regions, namely the Highlands to the north and west and lowlands in the south and east. More rugged Highland region contains most of the mountainous land of Scotland, including Ben Nevis which at 1343 meters (4406 feet) is the highest point in the British Isles. Low-lying areas, especially the narrow waist of land between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth known as the Middle Belt, are flatter and home to most of the population including Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, and Edinburgh, the capital and political center.

Wales accounts for less than one tenth of the total area in the UK, which covers 20 779 square kilometers (8020 sq mi). Wales is mostly mountainous, though South Wales is less mountainous than the North and mid Wales. The main population and industrial areas in South Wales, which comprises the coastal towns of Cardiff, Swansea, Newport, South Wales Valleys and to the north of them. The highest mountains in Wales, including Snowdon and the Snowdonia (Welsh: Yr Wyddfa) which, at 1,085 meters (3560 feet), is the highest peak in Wales. To-14, or maybe 15, Welsh mountains over 3,000 feet (914 m) high are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s. Wales has more than 1,200 km (750 miles) of coastline. There are several islands of the Welsh mainland, the largest being Anglesey (Ynys Mon) to the northwest.

Northern Ireland accounts for only 14 160 square kilometers (5470 square miles) and is mostly hilly. It includes Lough Neagh which at 388 square kilometers (150 sq mi), is the largest lake in the British Isles by area. [109] The highest peak in Northern Ireland is Slieve Donard in the Mourne Mountains at 852 meters (2795 feet).

Since the Acts of Union of 1707

On May 1, 1707 a new kingdom of England created by the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in accordance with the EU Treaty, negotiated the previous year and ratified by the Parliament of England and Scotland through the Acts of the Union.

In the 18 th century, the country plays an important role in developing Western ideas of parliamentary systems and in making significant contributions to literature, art, and science. UK-led Industrial Revolution transformed the nation and triggered a growing British Empire. So far Britain, like other great powers, are involved in colonial exploitation, including the Atlantic slave trade, though with the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807 Britain took a leading role in combating the slave trade. colonies in North America has been the main focus of British colonial activity. With their defeat in the War of American Independence, imperial ambitions turned elsewhere, especially to India.

In 1800, while war was still raging with France, the Parliament of England and Ireland respectively through the Act of Union, uniting the two kingdoms and created the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which formed on January 1, 1801.

After the defeat of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), Britain emerged as an economic and naval power of the major 19th century (with London the largest city in the world from about 1830 to 1930) and remains the leading force to the mid-20th century . unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, the state became known as the Pax Britannica is also a period of rapid economic, colonial. And industrial growth. England described as "workshop of the world", and the British Empire grew to include India, most of Africa, and elsewhere. Along with the official controls provided for his own colony, Britain's dominant position in world trade means that effectively control the economy of many countries, like China, Argentina and Siam. Domestically, there was a shift to free trade and laissez-faire policy and a significant widening of the franchise vote. The country is experiencing a huge increase in population during this century, accompanied by rapid urbanization, social and economic pressures led to a significant At the end of this century., Other countries began to challenge the dominance of British industry.

Britain, along with Russia, France and (after 1917) the United States, is one of the country against the German Empire and its allies in World War I (1914-1918) British armed forces. Grew more than five million people are involved in many kingdoms and several regions in Europe, and increasingly take the lead role in the western front. The nation has about two and a half million victims of war and finished with a huge national debt. After the war Britain received the League of Nations mandate over former German and Ottoman colonies, and the United Kingdom has been expanded to a broader, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population rise of Irish nationalism and strife in Ireland during the period of Irish Home Rule . led eventually to the partition of the island in 1921, and the independent Irish Free State with Dominion status in 1922, while Northern Ireland remained part of Britain Great Depression (1929-1932) occurred when Britain still recovering from the effects of war. and cause difficulties as well as political and social unrest.

Britain is one of the Allies of World War II and the original signatories to the UN Declaration. After the defeat of the European allies in the first year of the war, the British continued the match against Germany, especially in the Battle of Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic. After victory, Britain is one of the three great powers met to plan the postwar world. This war left the country financially damaged. Marshall Aid and loans from both the United States and Canada helped Britain on the road to recovery.

Labour government in the post-war years immediately begin a program of radical change, with significant impact on British society in the following decade in the country, major industries and public utilities were nationalized, a welfare state established. And comprehensive publicly funded health system, National Health Service, has been made. Responding to the emergence of local nationalism, the Labour government's own sympathies are now less ideological and economic position of Britain, the decolonization policy begun, starting with the granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947 Over the next three decades., The most independent and sovereign Empire be a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Although the boundaries of the new postwar British political role outlined by the 1956 Suez crisis, Britain remains one of the five permanent UN Security Council and is the third country to develop nuclear arsenals (with the first atom bomb test in 1952). International dissemination of the English language also ensure international influence continues to literature and culture, while from the 1960's popular culture also found influence abroad. As a result of a shortage of workers in 1950, the British Government encouraged immigration from Commonwealth countries, thus changing Britain into a multi-ethnic society in the following decade [90] In 1973., Britain joined the European Economic Community (EEC), and when EEC became the European Union (EU) in 1992, it was one of 12 founding members. From the late 1960s Northern Ireland and paramilitary communal violence (sometimes affect other parts of the UK and Republic of Ireland) is conventionally known as the Troubles. It is generally considered to have ended with the signing of the Belfast Agreement "Good Friday" of 1998.

After a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the 1970s, the Conservative government in the 1980s started a radical deregulation policies, particularly the financial sector, a flexible labor market, the sale of state enterprises (privatization), and the withdrawal of subsidies to others. Aided, of 1984, with the influx of North Sea oil revenues substantially, the UK experienced a period of significant economic growth around the end of the 20th century. there are major changes to the British government with the establishment of a national government to be handed in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales following pre-legislative referendum, and the legal incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights. Domestic controversy surrounded a British overseas military deployment in the 2000's (decade), particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan.

History Before 1707

Completion by the anatomy of modern humans from what is happening in the United Kingdom wave began about 30,000 years ago. At the end of prehistory in this region, the population is estimated to have been held, in the main, to the so-called Insular Celtic culture, which consists Brythonic British and Irish Gaelic. Roman conquest, beginning in 43 AD, and 400-year rule of the south of England, followed by the German invasion of Anglo-Saxon settlers, mainly to reduce the Brythonic area of ​​what became Wales. Areas settled by the Anglo-Saxon became united as the Kingdom of England in the 10th century. Meanwhile, the Gaelic-speakers in the north west of England (with connections to the north-east of Ireland and traditional should have migrated from there in the 5th century) united with the Picts to make the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century.

In 1066, the Normans invaded England and after his conquest, capture most of Wales, conquered most of Ireland and settled in Scotland brings to every state of feudalism in the Northern French models and Norman-French culture. Norman elites greatly affected, but eventually assimilated with, each local culture. Once the kings of medieval England completed the conquest of Wales and make the effort ultimately failed to annex Scotland. After that, Scotland maintains its independence, although in almost constant conflict with Britain. The kings of England, through the inheritance of a large region in France and claims to the crown of France, is also heavily involved in the conflict in France, especially the Hundred Years War.

Early modern period saw a religious conflict is a result of the introduction of the Reformation and Protestant state churches in every state. Wales is fully incorporated into the United Kingdom, and Ireland is a kingdom in personal union with the British crown. In what became Northern Ireland, land of the independent Gaelic nobility Catholic land confiscated and given to Protestant settlers from England and Scotland. In 1603, the kingdom of England, Scotland and Ireland are united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scotland, inherited the crown of England and Ireland, and moved his court from Edinburgh to London, but every country remain a separate political entity and maintains separate political institutions. In the mid-17th century, three kingdoms engaged in a series of connected wars (including the English Civil War) that led to the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the republic while the short-lived unity of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. Although the monarchy was restored, it ensures (with the Great Revolution of 1688) that, unlike much of the rest of Europe, royal absolutism will not win. British constitution will develop based on constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. During this period, especially in England, the development of naval power (and interest in the course of discovery) leading to the acquisition and settlement of overseas colonies, especially in North America.

Etymology and terminology

The name "Great Britain and Northern Ireland" was introduced in 1927 by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act to reflect the fact that de facto independence of the Irish Free State, which was created by the partition of Ireland in 1922, leaving Northern Ireland as the only part of the island Ireland is still in England. Prior to this, the Acts of Union 1800, which brings together the British Empire and the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801, has given a new country the name of the United Kingdom and Ireland. England prior to 1801 are sometimes referred to as "United Kingdom". However, Section 1 of the 1707 Acts of the Union stated that England and Scotland is "U.S. One to the Kingdom by the English name". united kingdom term is found in informal usage during the 18th century to describe the new state, but only became official with the union with Ireland in 1801.

Although the UK, as a sovereign state, is a country, England, Scotland, Wales and (more controversially) Northern Ireland is also known as a country, although they are not sovereign states and only Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have been given self-government. The site is British Prime Minister has used the term "state within a state" to describe the UK. With regard to Northern Ireland, a descriptive name that is used "may be controversial, with a choice of one's political preferences often reveal it." Other terms used for Northern Ireland including the "territory" and "provincial".

England is often referred to as English. British government sources often use this term as a short form for England, while the mass media style guides generally allow its use but suggests that the long-term English to refer only to England, Scotland and Wales. However, some foreign usage, especially in the United States, using English as a loose synonym for England. In addition, the British Olympic team that competed under the name "Britain" or "Team GB". GB and GBR is the standard for the UK country code (see ISO 3166-2 and ISO 3166-1 alpha-3) and consequently are often used by international organizations to refer to the UK.

In 2006, a new British passport to enter the design into use. The first page of the passport showing the name of the long form in English, Welsh and Scottish Gaelic. In Welsh, the name of the long form of the state is "Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Iwerddon Gogledd" with "Teyrnas Unedig" is used as the name of the short form on the government website. In Scottish Gaelic, the long form "Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Eireann moire Breatainne a Tuath".

English adjectives commonly used to refer to matters relating to the UK. Although this term has no definite legal connotation, it is used in the statute to refer to the United Kingdom citizenship. However, the English uses a number of different terms to describe their national identity. Some may identify themselves as British, or English and the English, Scottish, Welsh, or Northern Ireland. Other people may identify themselves as the only British, Irish Scottish, Welsh or Northern and not English. In Northern Ireland, some describe themselves as only the Irish.

United Kingdom

Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as British, English, or English) is a sovereign state located off the coast of north-west of continental Europe. The country includes the island of Great Britain, the northeastern part of the island of Ireland and the islands are smaller. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another state-the sovereign Republic of Ireland. In addition the UK land border is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, English Channel and Irish Sea.

Britain is a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system, the seat of government in the capital London. This is a country in itself and consists of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. There are three devolved national administrations, each with varying strengths, based in Belfast, Cardiff and Edinburgh, the capital of Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland respectively. Associated with England, but part of it unconstitutional, the three Crown Dependencies. United Kingdom have fourteen overseas territories. It is the remnants of the British Empire which at its peak in 1922, covering nearly a quarter of the world's land surface and are the largest empire in history. British influence can still be observed in the system of language, culture and laws of many of its original territory.

Britain is a developed country and has the world's seventh largest economy by nominal GDP and eighth largest economy by purchasing power parity. It was the first country in the industrialized world and a leading authority in the world during the 20th century to the 19th and early. Britain remains a major force in leading the influence of economic, cultural, military, scientific and political. It recognized nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranked fourth in the world.

Britain has become a permanent member of UN Security Council since the first session in 1946 and has been a member of the European Union and its predecessor the European Economic Community since 1973. It is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Council of Europe, G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD and the World Trade Organization.


2012 National Drug Control Strategy

Earlier this month, the Office of National Drug Control Policy released the 2012 National Drug Control Strategy.  There are a few items from the strategy that I will share through this blog and I thought I'd start with the introduction to the chapter entitled, "Strengthen Efforts to Prevent Drug Use in Our Communities".

Youth illicit drug use up since 2006
 . . . while overall youth drug use did not statistically change between 2010 and 2011, past-month use of any illicit drug among 10th graders increased from 16.8% in 2006 to 19.2% in 2011.  

Youth marijuana use up
Marijuana typically drives the trends in estimates of any illicit drug use, and, accordingly, past-month use of marijuana among 10th graders increased from 14.2% in 2006 to 17.6% in 2011.  

Perception of risk down
In addition, there continues to be a decline in the perceived risk of marijuana use among teens.  This is troubling, as research shows drug use trends among youth typically increase one to two years after a weakening of the perceived danger of using drugs.  

Few prevention messages
One possible influence on this observed trend in drug use and perception of risk is the decreased exposure of youth to prevention messages and the presence of messages and policies that downplay the consequences of drug use.  

Legalization not the answer to youth drug use
The Administration also recognizes that legalizing marijuana would not provide the answer to any of the health, social, youth education, criminal justice, and community quality of life challenges associated with drug use. 

The paragraph from which this information came is heavy with citations.  To view the citations, the strategy is available online and the excerpt above appears on page 5.

For additional information about youth marijuana use:

-- I blogged about local youth marijuana use data earlier this month.  Statewide data about youth marijuana use are available through the Healthy Youth Survey website.

-- The University of Washington's Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute's website contains multiple science-based fact sheets about marijuana.

-- The American Academy of Pediatrics published an article about Marijuana Legalization: The Potential Impact on Youth.

Get rid of unused medications at police precincts on Saturday

From the Seattle Police Department:

On April 28 from 10:00 am to 2:00 pm the Seattle Police Department and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will give the public another opportunity to prevent pill abuse and theft by ridding their homes of potentially dangerous expired, unused, and unwanted prescription drugs.  Bring your medications for disposal to any one of the five Seattle Police Department precincts. The service is free and anonymous, no questions asked.

Last October, Americans turned in 377,080 pounds – 188.5 tons- of prescription drugs at over 5,300 sites operated by the DEA and nearly 4,000 state and local law enforcement partners.  In its three previous Take Back events, DEA and its partners took in almost a million pounds- nearly 500 tons- of pills.

This initiative addresses a vital public safety and public health issue.  Medicines that languish in home cabinets are highly susceptible to diversion, misuse, and abuse.  Rates of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. are alarmingly high, as are the numbers of accidental poisonings and overdoses due to these drugs.  Studies show that a majority of abused prescription drugs are obtained from family and friends, including from the home medicine cabinet.  In addition, Americans are now advised that their usual methods for disposing of unused medicines-flushing them down the toilet or throwing them in the trash-both pose potential safety and health hazards.

Four days after the first event, Congress passed the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010, which amends the Controlled Substances Act to allow an “ultimate user” of controlled substance medications to dispose of them by delivering them to entities authorized by the Attorney General to accept them.  The Act also allows the Attorney General to authorize long term care facilities to dispose of their residents’ controlled substances in certain instances.  DEA is drafting regulations to implement the Act, a process that can take as long as 24 months.  Until new regulations are in place, local law enforcement agencies like the Seattle Police Department and the DEA will continue to hold prescription drug take-back events every few months.


"Alcopops" get around marketing restrictions and target underage drinkers

Earlier this month, I posted information about free webinar entitled "Joe Camel in a Bottle: Alcohol Trends & Update".  I participated in that webinar yesterday and here are a few of my notes along with some presentation slides.

In the United States, underage drinkers make up 10-19% of the alcohol market producing $10-$20Billion in revenue for alcohol producers.  

Increasingly, underage drinkers consume liquor (distilled spirits).  Girls who drink alcohol report that liquor is their alcoholic beverage of choice.  

During the webinar, James Mosher, JD, described the efforts of one company, Diageo, to take advantage of advertising regulations to market to youth.

As the slide below states, beer is less regulated than liquor when it comes to marketing.

"Alcopops" are sweetened alcohol beverages that are usually sold in single-serving bottles or cans.  They are often fruit-flavored and/or bubbly, resembling soft drinks.  Alcopops are popular among young, especially underage, drinkers.  Examples of alcopops are Blast, Smirnoff Ice, Mikes' Hard Lemonade, Four Loko, and Joose.  

Though it might seem like alcopops would be considered liquor, they are in fact categorized as malt beverages like beer.

Though they may start as beer, the vast majority of alcopops get most of their alcohol from the liquor that is added to what is left of the beer.

Though most of the alcohol content in alcopops comes from liquor, they are considered malt beverages which means that they can be marketed like beer.  As noted in the first slide, this means fewer advertising restrictions, more stores selling them, and lower taxes.  All of which have an impact on youth alcohol use.

In Nebraska, the State Supreme Court ruled that alcopops are indeed distilled spirits and must be marketed as such.  Within a month of that ruling, after concerted lobbying by the alcohol industry, the Nebraska Legislature over-ruled the court's decision.  

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