Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or Executive, led by a First Minister and unicameral legislative devolution. Britain, the largest country of England, has no executive or legislative delivered and managed and arranged for directly by the British government and parliament on all issues. This situation has raised the question of what is called the West Lothian pertaining to the fact that MPs from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively, on matters affecting England that are handled by the legislature be submitted to their own constituents.
Scottish Government and Parliament have wide ranging powers over any matter not specifically 'reserved' to the British parliament, including education, health, Scots law and local government. After his victory in the 2007 elections, the pro-independence Scottish National Party (SNP) to form a minority government with its leader, Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland. pro-union parties responded to the successful election of the SNP with the Commission on Scottish Devolution creates a report in 2009 and recommended that additional power should be handed over, including the control of half of the income tax raised in Scotland. In the 2011 elections the SNP won re-election and a majority in the parliament of Scotland.
Government and the Welsh National Assembly for Wales have more limited powers than those given to Scotland. After passage of the Government of Wales Act 2006 assembly capable of regulating in an area once given permission by the Assembly act to implement certain regulations to which it has been granted by Westminster through the Legislative Competence Order, but since May 2011 the Assembly has been able to legislate on matters submitted by The story of the Assembly, which does not require prior approval. Welsh government is currently constituted after the general election in 2011, and a minority Labour administration led by Carwyn Jones, who had become First Minister of Labour administration Cymru / Plaid since December 2009.
The Northern Ireland Executive and Assembly have powers closer to those that have been handed over to Scotland. The Executive is led by diarchy unionists and nationalists represent the Assembly. Currently, Peter Robinson (Democratic Unionist Party) and Martin McGuinness (Sinn Fein) is the First Minister and deputy First Minister respectively.
Devolution in Northern Ireland are subject to the provisions of the Good Friday Agreement and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Agreement between the UK and Republic of Ireland. In accordance with the agreement, the participation of members of the Northern Ireland Executive in the North / South Ministerial Council, and co-operation between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on a number of policy areas surrendered, a prerequisite of devolution in Northern Ireland. British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference also established under the agreement, in which "the Irish Government may put forward views and proposals" non-devolved matters relating to Northern Ireland. However, the British government remained sovereign in Northern Ireland unless a majority of the people of Northern Ireland chose to form a united Ireland.
Britain does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not in the power delivered to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Under the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, the British Parliament could, in theory, therefore, to abolish the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly or Northern Ireland Assembly. Indeed, in 1972, the British Parliament prorogued Parliament unilaterally Northern Ireland, set a precedent that is relevant to contemporary institutions delivered in practice., The circumstances in which the British Parliament would abolish devolution given the political constraints created by the referendum decision is unclear. The political constraints placed on the power of the British Parliament to interfere with devolution in Northern Ireland is greater than that associated with Scotland and Wales, given that devolution in Northern Ireland rests on an international treaty by the Irish Government.