A Census occurs simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. Office for National Statistics is responsible for collecting the data for England and Wales, General Register Office for Scotland and Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency respectively responsible for the census in their respective countries. In the 2001 census the population of England is 58,789,194, the third largest in the European Union, the fifth largest in the Commonwealth and the twenty-first largest in the world. In mid-2010 is expected to grow to 62.262 million. 2010 is the third year in a row in which the natural changes contribute more to population growth from net long-term international migration. Between 2001 and 2010 the population increased by an average annual rate of 0.6 percent. This compares with 0.3 percent per year in the period 1991-2001 and 0.2 percent in the decade 1981 to 1991. Mid-2007 population estimates revealed that, for the first time, Britain is home to more people of retirement age than children under the age of 16 [256] It has been estimated that the number of people aged 100 or more will rise. sharply to more than 626 000 by 2080.

UK population by mid-2010 an estimated 52.23 million [255]. This is one of the world's most populous country, with 383 inhabitants per square kilometer in mid-2003, with particular concentration in London and the south-east. Mid-2010 estimate put the population at 5.22 million Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 3.01 million on 1.80 million, with a population density much lower than the UK. Compared with England 383 inhabitants per square kilometer (990 / sq mi), the corresponding figures were 142 / km2 (370 / sq mi) for Wales, 125 / km2 (320 / sq mi) for Northern Ireland and 65 / km2 ( 170 / sq mi) for Scotland in the mid-2003. In terms of percentage of Northern Ireland has the fastest growing population of any UK country on each of four years until mid-2008.

In 2009 the average birth rate of total (TFR) in the UK was 1.94 children per woman. While the birth rate increases contributed to the current population growth, is still far below the peak of 'baby boom' of 2.95 children per woman in 1964, below the replacement level of 2.1, but higher than the 2001 record low 1.63. In 2010, Scotland has the lowest TFR of only 1.75, followed by Wales at 1.98, 2.00 for Britain and Northern Ireland at 2.06.
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