Science and technology

England and Scotland, who led the center of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century and Britain led the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and continues to produce scientists and engineers credited with important advances. Major theories of the 17th and 18th centuries, including Isaac Newton, the laws of motion and gravitation lighting has been considered the foundation of modern science, from the 19th century Charles Darwin, the theory of evolution by natural selection is the basis for modern development, biology, and James Clerk Maxwell, who formulated the classical electromagnetic theory, and more recently Stephen Hawking, who has a great theory advanced in the field of cosmology, quantum gravity and black holes investigation. Major scientific discoveries of the 18th century, including hydrogen by Henry Cavendish, from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming, and the structure of DNA, by Francis Crick and others. Major engineering projects and applications by people from England in the 18th century including the steam locomotive, which was developed by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian, of the 19th century electric motor by Michael Faraday, the incandescent light bulb by Joseph Swan, and practical The first telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell, and in the 20th century the world's first working television system by John Logie Baird and others, the jet engine by Frank Whittle, the basis of modern computer by Alan Turing, and the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee.

Modern English plays a leading part in the aviation industry, with companies including Rolls-Royce plays a major role in aero-engine market; BAE Systems acting as the UK's largest company and the sixth largest defense supplier in the Pentagon, and a large including GKN acts as a major supplier for Airbus project . Two UK-based companies, GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, ranked in the top five pharmaceutical companies in the world with sales in 2009, and British companies have discovered and developed more leading medicines than any other country besides the U.S.. Britain remains the leading center of automotive design and production, especially of the engine, and has about 2,600 component manufacturers. Scientific research and development remains important at the university in the UK, with many building science parks to facilitate the production and cooperation with industry. Between 2004 and 2008 the UK produced 7% of the world's scientific research and has a share of 8% of scientific citations, third and second highest in the world (after the United States and China, and the United States, respectively). Scientific journals produced in the UK include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet.
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