Since the Acts of Union of 1707

On May 1, 1707 a new kingdom of England created by the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in accordance with the EU Treaty, negotiated the previous year and ratified by the Parliament of England and Scotland through the Acts of the Union.

In the 18 th century, the country plays an important role in developing Western ideas of parliamentary systems and in making significant contributions to literature, art, and science. UK-led Industrial Revolution transformed the nation and triggered a growing British Empire. So far Britain, like other great powers, are involved in colonial exploitation, including the Atlantic slave trade, though with the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807 Britain took a leading role in combating the slave trade. colonies in North America has been the main focus of British colonial activity. With their defeat in the War of American Independence, imperial ambitions turned elsewhere, especially to India.

In 1800, while war was still raging with France, the Parliament of England and Ireland respectively through the Act of Union, uniting the two kingdoms and created the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which formed on January 1, 1801.

After the defeat of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), Britain emerged as an economic and naval power of the major 19th century (with London the largest city in the world from about 1830 to 1930) and remains the leading force to the mid-20th century . unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, the state became known as the Pax Britannica is also a period of rapid economic, colonial. And industrial growth. England described as "workshop of the world", and the British Empire grew to include India, most of Africa, and elsewhere. Along with the official controls provided for his own colony, Britain's dominant position in world trade means that effectively control the economy of many countries, like China, Argentina and Siam. Domestically, there was a shift to free trade and laissez-faire policy and a significant widening of the franchise vote. The country is experiencing a huge increase in population during this century, accompanied by rapid urbanization, social and economic pressures led to a significant At the end of this century., Other countries began to challenge the dominance of British industry.

Britain, along with Russia, France and (after 1917) the United States, is one of the country against the German Empire and its allies in World War I (1914-1918) British armed forces. Grew more than five million people are involved in many kingdoms and several regions in Europe, and increasingly take the lead role in the western front. The nation has about two and a half million victims of war and finished with a huge national debt. After the war Britain received the League of Nations mandate over former German and Ottoman colonies, and the United Kingdom has been expanded to a broader, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population rise of Irish nationalism and strife in Ireland during the period of Irish Home Rule . led eventually to the partition of the island in 1921, and the independent Irish Free State with Dominion status in 1922, while Northern Ireland remained part of Britain Great Depression (1929-1932) occurred when Britain still recovering from the effects of war. and cause difficulties as well as political and social unrest.

Britain is one of the Allies of World War II and the original signatories to the UN Declaration. After the defeat of the European allies in the first year of the war, the British continued the match against Germany, especially in the Battle of Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic. After victory, Britain is one of the three great powers met to plan the postwar world. This war left the country financially damaged. Marshall Aid and loans from both the United States and Canada helped Britain on the road to recovery.

Labour government in the post-war years immediately begin a program of radical change, with significant impact on British society in the following decade in the country, major industries and public utilities were nationalized, a welfare state established. And comprehensive publicly funded health system, National Health Service, has been made. Responding to the emergence of local nationalism, the Labour government's own sympathies are now less ideological and economic position of Britain, the decolonization policy begun, starting with the granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947 Over the next three decades., The most independent and sovereign Empire be a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Although the boundaries of the new postwar British political role outlined by the 1956 Suez crisis, Britain remains one of the five permanent UN Security Council and is the third country to develop nuclear arsenals (with the first atom bomb test in 1952). International dissemination of the English language also ensure international influence continues to literature and culture, while from the 1960's popular culture also found influence abroad. As a result of a shortage of workers in 1950, the British Government encouraged immigration from Commonwealth countries, thus changing Britain into a multi-ethnic society in the following decade [90] In 1973., Britain joined the European Economic Community (EEC), and when EEC became the European Union (EU) in 1992, it was one of 12 founding members. From the late 1960s Northern Ireland and paramilitary communal violence (sometimes affect other parts of the UK and Republic of Ireland) is conventionally known as the Troubles. It is generally considered to have ended with the signing of the Belfast Agreement "Good Friday" of 1998.

After a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the 1970s, the Conservative government in the 1980s started a radical deregulation policies, particularly the financial sector, a flexible labor market, the sale of state enterprises (privatization), and the withdrawal of subsidies to others. Aided, of 1984, with the influx of North Sea oil revenues substantially, the UK experienced a period of significant economic growth around the end of the 20th century. there are major changes to the British government with the establishment of a national government to be handed in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales following pre-legislative referendum, and the legal incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights. Domestic controversy surrounded a British overseas military deployment in the 2000's (decade), particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan.
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